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1 The Black Death. 2 Causes of the Black Death The facts In 1348 people started dying of a terrible disease they called the Great Death, the Great Mortality.

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Presentation on theme: "1 The Black Death. 2 Causes of the Black Death The facts In 1348 people started dying of a terrible disease they called the Great Death, the Great Mortality."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 The Black Death

2 2 Causes of the Black Death The facts In 1348 people started dying of a terrible disease they called the Great Death, the Great Mortality or simply the Plague. It was bubonic plague, now known as the Black Death. Historians think the disease was brought over to Melcombe, a port in Dorset, by two French ships. They think it was either brought by a sailor who had caught the disease, or more likely by fleas on rats that lived in the cargo the ships were carrying. In 1348 people started dying of a terrible disease they called the Great Death, the Great Mortality or simply the Plague. It was bubonic plague, now known as the Black Death. Historians think the disease was brought over to Melcombe, a port in Dorset, by two French ships. They think it was either brought by a sailor who had caught the disease, or more likely by fleas on rats that lived in the cargo the ships were carrying.

3 3 Causes of the Black Death The facts The disease originally came from China but was spread to Europe by merchants. It quickly spread across the whole of Southern England. It wasn't until 1894 that doctors discovered that the bubonic plague was caused by germs carried by fleas that lived on the bodies of black rats. When the rats died, they looked for a new home - a person. The disease originally came from China but was spread to Europe by merchants. It quickly spread across the whole of Southern England. It wasn't until 1894 that doctors discovered that the bubonic plague was caused by germs carried by fleas that lived on the bodies of black rats. When the rats died, they looked for a new home - a person.

4 4 Causes of the Black Death The facts Medieval people did not wash very often and so they were very dirty and tended to have fleas. If an infected flea bit them, it would pass on the Black Death. Rats moved from place to place infecting people and other rats as they went. They travelled on wagons and in hay bales that were transported all over the country, spreading the Black Death. Medieval people did not wash very often and so they were very dirty and tended to have fleas. If an infected flea bit them, it would pass on the Black Death. Rats moved from place to place infecting people and other rats as they went. They travelled on wagons and in hay bales that were transported all over the country, spreading the Black Death.

5 5 The fleas that transmitted the Black Death

6 6 The Facts Between 1348 and 1349 the plague spread throughout the rest of the country and killed about 2,500,000 people - nearly a third of England's population. It spread especially quickly in towns because living conditions there allowed fleas and rats to survive. Towns were overcrowded and there was dirt and rubbish everywhere. It was a rat's paradise! Between 1348 and 1349 the plague spread throughout the rest of the country and killed about 2,500,000 people - nearly a third of England's population. It spread especially quickly in towns because living conditions there allowed fleas and rats to survive. Towns were overcrowded and there was dirt and rubbish everywhere. It was a rat's paradise!

7 7 The rumours The whole of England was terrified. Victims could not just go to the doctor and get medicine to make them better. In the 14th century, medicine was not a scientific subject and people did not know about the existence of germs. You were more likely to turn to God for healing than a doctor. People thought there might be a link between dirt and disease but they were not sure what it might be. The whole of England was terrified. Victims could not just go to the doctor and get medicine to make them better. In the 14th century, medicine was not a scientific subject and people did not know about the existence of germs. You were more likely to turn to God for healing than a doctor. People thought there might be a link between dirt and disease but they were not sure what it might be.

8 8 The rumours Some people said the Black Death had been sent by God to punish people for their sins. Many people prayed for forgiveness. One group even went as far as whipping themselves and singing hymns in order to win God's forgiveness. These people became known as flagellants Some people said the Black Death had been sent by God to punish people for their sins. Many people prayed for forgiveness. One group even went as far as whipping themselves and singing hymns in order to win God's forgiveness. These people became known as flagellants

9 9 The rumours There were many other wild rumours, too. Some people thought it started in the East when frogs, snakes, lizards and scorpions fell from the sky, followed by thunder, lightning and fire. Others thought it came as arrows from God or that it was God's punishment for sins such as gambling, swearing, money lending, fighting and adultery. There were many other wild rumours, too. Some people thought it started in the East when frogs, snakes, lizards and scorpions fell from the sky, followed by thunder, lightning and fire. Others thought it came as arrows from God or that it was God's punishment for sins such as gambling, swearing, money lending, fighting and adultery.

10 10 Can you answer these questions? Which causes are rumour and which are fact? RumourFact Over-eating Bad smelling wind from S Europe Foreigners poisoning the water Talking to sailors The lining up of the planets Dirty streets

11 11 Can you answer these questions? Which causes are rumour and which are fact? RumourFact Over-eating Bad smelling wind from S Europe Foreigners poisoning the water Talking to sailors The lining up of the planets Dirty streets

12 12 What it was like to have the Plague Day 1 Boils called buboes grew in groin and armpit of the victim They were about the size of a tennis ball Day 1 Boils called buboes grew in groin and armpit of the victim They were about the size of a tennis ball

13 13 What it was like to have the Plague Day 2 They would develop a high fever Sometimes they would shiver, while at other times they would sweat They were very sick, sometimes bringing up blood Day 2 They would develop a high fever Sometimes they would shiver, while at other times they would sweat They were very sick, sometimes bringing up blood

14 14 What it was like to have the Plague Day 3 Black spots appeared mostly on the arms and thighs There was bleeding under the skin Day 3 Black spots appeared mostly on the arms and thighs There was bleeding under the skin

15 15 What it was like to have the Plague Day 4 As the disease attacked the nervous system, it became very painful The victim had spasms (uncontrolled shakes) Day 4 As the disease attacked the nervous system, it became very painful The victim had spasms (uncontrolled shakes)

16 16 What it was like to have the Plague Day 5 The buboes burst A sticking liquid of black and yellow puss oozed out. It was poisonous Day 5 The buboes burst A sticking liquid of black and yellow puss oozed out. It was poisonous

17 17 What it was like to have the Plague Day 6 The victim died Day 6 The victim died

18 18 As medieval doctors did not know what caused the Black Death, they also did not know how to cure it. As a result they tried some crazy methods to try and cure it. For example, some people tried drying a toad in the sun and then pressing it on their boils. The idea was that the toad would absorb the pus from the boil and swell up until eventually it burst. As medieval doctors did not know what caused the Black Death, they also did not know how to cure it. As a result they tried some crazy methods to try and cure it. For example, some people tried drying a toad in the sun and then pressing it on their boils. The idea was that the toad would absorb the pus from the boil and swell up until eventually it burst. Sorts of cures used

19 19 Which of these ‘cures’ do you think the people tried TriedDidn’t try Eating crushed emeralds Using antiseptic cream Squeezing the boils & covering with a bandage Slicing open boils. Burning with a red hot poker Purifying the air with sweet herbs Shaving a live chickens bottom & attaching to the boils

20 20 Which of these ‘cures’ do you think the people tried TriedDidn’t try Eating crushed emeralds Using antiseptic cream Squeezing the boils & covering with a bandage Slicing open boils. Burning with a red hot poker Purifying the air with sweet herbs Shaving a live chickens bottom & attaching to the boils

21 21 Which of these ‘cures’ do you think the people tried TriedDidn’t try Taking an aspirin Taking (poisonous) arsenic Cutting a live pigeon in half & rubbing it on the boils Drinking 10 year old treacle Taking antibiotics Rubbing with a mixture of onions, figs, yeast & butter (to soften them) and then slicing open with a knife

22 22 Which of these ‘cures’ do you think the people tried TriedDidn’t try Taking an aspirin Taking (poisonous) arsenic Cutting a live pigeon in half & rubbing it on the boils Drinking 10 year old treacle Taking antibiotics Rubbing with a mixture of onions, figs, yeast & butter (to soften them) and then slicing open with a knife

23 23 The consequences The Black Death had terrible and far- reaching effects on the people of England. Millions of people died an agonising and slow death and the dramatic decrease in the population caused many problems. Villages were left abandoned and houses were full of dead plague victims. The Black Death had terrible and far- reaching effects on the people of England. Millions of people died an agonising and slow death and the dramatic decrease in the population caused many problems. Villages were left abandoned and houses were full of dead plague victims.

24 24 The consequences Churches were derelict, crops were rotting in fields, and animals were left to run wild. In towns, streets were deserted and shops and houses left empty. The smell of dead bodies was everywhere. Survivors stole from empty shops and houses as there was no-one to stop them. Many people were in a state of utter shock. Churches were derelict, crops were rotting in fields, and animals were left to run wild. In towns, streets were deserted and shops and houses left empty. The smell of dead bodies was everywhere. Survivors stole from empty shops and houses as there was no-one to stop them. Many people were in a state of utter shock.

25 25 The consequences A lot of priests and doctors died of bubonic plague because they spent a lot of time with the sick. The disease was highly contagious so they would often catch it. Priests visited the sick to read them their last rites before they died. They also spent time helping them pray for forgiveness. People believed the Black Death had been sent by God to punish them for their sins and so they visited priests to ask for help. A lot of priests and doctors died of bubonic plague because they spent a lot of time with the sick. The disease was highly contagious so they would often catch it. Priests visited the sick to read them their last rites before they died. They also spent time helping them pray for forgiveness. People believed the Black Death had been sent by God to punish them for their sins and so they visited priests to ask for help.

26 26 The consequences Plague doctors would try to protect themselves by sniffing sweet-scented herbs to try to stop them smelling the bad air that they believed to be causing the Black Death.

27 27 The consequences Surprisingly, there were people who benefited from some of these changes. Labourers were able to demand higher wages, for example, because there were fewer men available to work and lords needed men to work on their land. Of course, not all the changes were positive. Taxes increased as there were fewer people to pay them and they were needed for wars against France.. Surprisingly, there were people who benefited from some of these changes. Labourers were able to demand higher wages, for example, because there were fewer men available to work and lords needed men to work on their land. Of course, not all the changes were positive. Taxes increased as there were fewer people to pay them and they were needed for wars against France..

28 28 Positive and negative consequences +- Villeins could demand wages rather than land as labour was short Towns were deserted, houses/shop empty Prices fell as there was more food/goods than needed Villages were deserted, crops rotted and animals dies The population fell by 2,500,000 Poorer people stood up to the King and the church

29 29 Positive and negative consequences +- Villeins could demand wages rather than land as labour was short Towns were deserted, houses/shop empty Prices fell as there was more food/goods than needed Villages were deserted, crops rotted and animals dies The population fell by 2,500,000 Poorer people stood up to the King and the church

30 30 Black Death & changes in the Middle Ages 5. Feudalism declining in 14th C 4. Improving living standard of villagers 3. Changing role of the knights 2. Effects of the Black Death 1. Causes of the black death (i) rats & fleas (iii) contagious (by touch) & infectious (in air/water) (ii) dirt & overcrowding (i) falling population (ii) rising wages (iii) decline of control of poor (i) some became professional soldiers (ii) many stayed at home to farm (iii) some took rent from tenants (i) higher wages (ii) better food (iii) better homes (i) people moved (ii) rents instead of service (ii) villagers owned land

31 31 Homework Weekend Special Sunday Supplement! Jan 1385 – Five years since the Black Death left us This week’s supplement will be devoted to the causes and consequences of the Black Death. Why did it happen? What changes have occurred as a result? Are they good or bad? [Choose one of the 6 branches of the spider diagram on the previous page and explore the ideas in a Sunday Supplement style article] Weekend Special Sunday Supplement! Jan 1385 – Five years since the Black Death left us This week’s supplement will be devoted to the causes and consequences of the Black Death. Why did it happen? What changes have occurred as a result? Are they good or bad? [Choose one of the 6 branches of the spider diagram on the previous page and explore the ideas in a Sunday Supplement style article]


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