Presentation on theme: "Warm-up #16 Describe 100 Years War and Joan of Arc’s role in it. How did the 100 Years War effect kings in France and England differently?"— Presentation transcript:
Warm-up #16 Describe 100 Years War and Joan of Arc’s role in it. How did the 100 Years War effect kings in France and England differently?
10.4 Assessment 1a. The Magna Carta limited the power of the king. 1b. Parliament limited the king’s power and gave the people some say in how the government was run. 2a. Joan of Arc rallied the French against the English. 2b. France was more damaged after the 100 Years war because most of the fighting happened there.
10.4 Assessment Magna Carta (rights included)Effects (long term) Property rights Right to fair trial The king no longer had absolute power Must be paid for property, king is no longer the largest landowner. Today we have trial by jury and a court system separate from the rest of government. Citizens gained rights
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Essential Question What types of changes did the Black Death bring to Europe?
The Famine of By 1300 Europeans were farming almost all the land they could cultivate. A population crisis developed. Climate changes in Europe produced three years of crop failures between because of excessive rain. As many as 15% of the peasants in some English villages died. One consequence of starvation & poverty was vulnerability to disease.
The Culprits Yersinia pestis bacteria Flea Rats
The Disease Cycle Flea drinks rat blood that carries the bacteria. Flea’s gut clogged with bacteria. Bacteria multiply in flea’s gut. Flea bites human and regurgitates blood into human wound. Human is infected!
Black Death’s Origins 1.What country did the plague originate from? 2.What year did a breakout occur in India? 3.How many years later did it breakout in Mecca?
Black Death’s Spread 1.According to the map, how many years did it take to spread throughout much of Europe? 2.When did the plague hit London, England?
The Symptoms Bulbous Septicemic Form: almost 100% mortality rate. The disease reaches the bloodsream.
Medieval Treatments Victims were terrified of the deadly disease. The plague held a mortality rate between 30-40%. No one knew how to prevent or treat the disease. Here were some common treatments. Headaches were relieved by rose, lavender, sage and bay. Sickness or nausea was treated with wormwood, mint, and balm. Lung problems were treated with liquorish. bloodletting was commonly thought to be one of the best ways to treat the plague. The blood that exuded was black, thick and vile smelling with a greenish scum mixed in it. Black Death was treated by lancing the buboes and applying a warm poultice of butter, onion and garlic. Various other remedies were tried including arsenic, lily root and even dried toad… It says toad.
Lancing a Buboe
Attempts to Stop the Plague A Doctor’s Robe “Leeching”
Bring out your Dead The plague caused so many deaths that many city streets were lined with the dead. Plague pits: Mass burials The next clip demonstrates how the dead were collected. Enjoy!
Bring out your Dead: click the link https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=grbSQ 6O6kbs&list=PL94B5AD1E https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=grbSQ 6O6kbs&list=PL94B5AD1E
Black Death & the Church Because of the societies deep belief in the church, when holy officials became infected and died, peoples beliefs faltered and they were left in confusion as to why everyone was being punished. They began to believe the church was somewhat artificial started to revolt against the Feudal System. The Black Death affected religion in numerous ways. New religious sects formed, such as the Flagellants in Europe. The Flagellants believed the Black Death was a punishment form God, and sought to get back into His good graces by harming themselves, namely in the from of whipping, to represent Jesus' suffering. Jews throughout Europe were targeted and scapegoated. People, having no explanation for the Plague, falsely accused Jews of poisoning wells and spreading the Black Plague in other ways. The accusations escalated to violence, and many Jews were driven from their homes or killed in massacres. The Black Death also drove people away from, while drawing other people closer to traditional religion. Some people, believing that God had abandoned them to the plague, turned their back on religion. Others, believing that only God could deliver them from the Plague, strongly embraced religion.
Attempts to Stop the Plague Persecution of Jews: After a short while, there arose a new idea among the European Christian masses why the Black Death was ravaging their land: because they allowed the Jews to live in their midst. Many communities throughout Christian Europe developed a formula and prescription of saving the community from the plague lay in either converting, exiling or murdering the Jewish population. From 1349 until about 1390, the Jewish communities of France, Germany and England almost disappeared completely.
Attempts to Stop the Plague Persecution of Jews: Jews were generally less affected by the plague which contributed to Christian belief that they were behind the spreading of disease. And even if Jews died at a lesser rate, it can be attributed to the sanitary practices Jewish law. For instance, Jewish law compels one to wash his or her hands many times throughout the day. In the general medieval world a person could go half his or her life without ever washing his hands. According to Jewish law, one could not eat food without washing one’s hands, leaving the bathroom and after any sort of intimate human contact. At least once a week, a Jew bathed for the Sabbath.
Attempts to Stop the Plague Persecution of Jews: The impact of the Black Death on Jewish history cannot be underestimated. It accelerated the movement of from Western Europe to the east, especially Poland, which was almost exempt from the Black Death. Even though the Jews will eventually move back to Western Europe, it will never again be the center of Jewish life it had been for almost four centuries
Attempts to Stop the Plague Flagellanti: Self-inflicted “penance” for our sins! In order to show that people truly believed in God, they would mutilate their own bodies
The Black Death & Feudalism The Black Death killed so many people that there were many buried quickly without ceremonies. In England alone, about 1,000 villages were abandoned. The Manor System fell apart completely because there weren't enough people left to work in the fields. Those peasants who survived the disease found that their skills were highly demanded. Suddenly, the can now demand wages for their labor.
Medieval Art & the Plague
The Black Death left behind an undeniable sense of despair and sadness. This was manifested in many cultural and artistic forms. The artistic expression at the time mirrored people’s personal experience with death The Black Death powerfully reinforced realism in art. The fear of hell became horribly real and the promise of heaven seemed remote. Most historians interpret the emergence of the radical death iconography as a manifestation of the traumas that people suffered during the plague epidemics. However, the iconography also can reflect the passion for life, how strongly people were attached to it, and how bitter it was to lose it.
Danse Macabre Danse Macabre is an artistic genre of the late Middle Ages that stresses no matter one's station in life, the Dance of Death unites all. The Danse Macabre consists of the dead summoning representatives from all walks of life to dance along to the grave. They were created to remind people of the fragility of their lives and how vain were the glories of earthly life
A Little Macabre Ditty “A sickly season,” the merchant said, “The town I left was filled with dead, and everywhere these queer red flies crawled upon the corpses’ eyes, eating them away.” “Fair make you sick,” the merchant said, “They crawled upon the wine and bread. Pale priests with oil and books, bulging eyes and crazy looks, dropping like the flies.”
A Little Macabre Ditty (2) “I had to laugh,” the merchant said, “The doctors purged, and dosed, and bled; “And proved through solemn disputation “The cause lay in some constellation. “Then they began to die.” “First they sneezed,” the merchant said, “And then they turned the brightest red, Begged for water, then fell back. With bulging eyes and face turned black, they waited for the flies.”
A Little Macabre Ditty (3) “I came away,” the merchant said, “You can’t do business with the dead. “So I’ve come here to ply my trade. “You’ll find this to be a fine brocade…” And then he sneezed……….!
The Mortality Rate 35% - 45% 25,000,000 dead !!!