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Challenges of the Late Middle Ages

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Presentation on theme: "Challenges of the Late Middle Ages"— Presentation transcript:

1 Challenges of the Late Middle Ages
Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus Religious Crises Wars and Conflict Map: Hundred Years’ War Faces of History: Joan of Arc

2 Challenges of the Late Middle Ages
Preview, continued Black Death Quick Facts: Effects of the Plague Visual Study Guide / Quick Facts Video: The Impact of the Bubonic Plague

3 Challenges of the Late Middle Ages
Main Idea In the late Middle Ages, Europeans faced many challenges, including religious crises, wars, and a deadly plague. Reading Focus What sorts of religious crises did Europe face during the late Middle Ages? What were the causes of war and conflict in the late Middle Ages? What was the Black Death, and how did it affect people?

4 Religious Crises Heresy Alarm Order
In 1346, Europe faced challenges to its religious, political and social order. Since Christianity tied most Europeans together, religious crises were a grave threat to all society. Heresy, beliefs that opposed official teachings of church Heretical beliefs began increasing in Europe, 1100s Spread throughout medieval society Heresy Most people remained faithful Cases of heresy increased, church officials alarmed Heretics de-emphasized role of clergy, sacraments Alarm Heresy threatened social order in church Heretical beliefs frightened religious officials Determined to stop spread of heresy Order

5 Fighting heresy Other means
Inquisitions primary method of fighting heresy Legal procedures supervised by special judges who tried suspected heretics Accused came before court, local authorities punished guilty parties Other means Francis of Assisi, Dominic of Osma, created new religious orders Members of orders, friars, spread Christian teachings among people War also used to fight heresy Pope Innocent III called for crusade against heretics in southern France, 1208; spent 20 years trying to eliminate heretics there

6 The Papacy in Dispute Adding to turmoil in medieval church, a dispute over the papacy Political fighting in Rome, 1309 Pope forced to flee to Avignon, southern France Next several popes also lived at Avignon 100 years of dispute 70 years later, Pope Gregory XI returned to Rome Upon his death, disagreement over new pope; two claimed power, one in Rome, one in Avignon Council of Pisa tried to settle dispute, created third claim to office Conflict unresolved, three popes reigned in Europe for 40 years

7 What religious challenges did Europeans face in the later Middle Ages?
Find the Main Idea What religious challenges did Europeans face in the later Middle Ages? Answer(s): the Inquisition, location of the papacy, who would be the next pope

8 Wars and Conflict Hundred Years’ War King Philip VI
Wars were also being fought so political leaders could gain power for themselves. The two most violent involved the kings of England. French king died without son, 1328 King Edward III of England, nearest living relative Also had first cousin, regent English wanted Edward to rule both countries French did not want English king, favored regent Hundred Years’ War Regent crowned as King Philip VI of France, decision did not please English Edward invaded France, 1337, began Hundred Years’ War English won many victories Used better weapons Moved deeper into France Under Henry V, advanced to gates of Paris King Philip VI

9 Hundred Years’ War War Changed Course King Charles VII
Young peasant girl, Joan of Arc, changed course of war, 1429 Claimed saints told her to lead French into battle Joan, army defeated English at Orléans Led French to several more victories before being captured, executed by British War Changed Course After Joan’s death, French King Charles VII rallied army French steadily took back land lost to English Drove English almost completely out of country, 1453 War finally ended after more than 100 years King Charles VII


11 Wars of the Roses No end of fighting Yorkist victories Richard III
Shortly after peace with France, two families began war over English throne Lancasters, used red rose as emblem; Yorks, used white rose as emblem Conflict became known as Wars of the Roses Yorkist victories Yorkists successful early; Edward IV took throne, 1461 Won significant victories over Lancastrians Trouble began after Edward’s death Richard III Edward’s sons disappeared after his death; brother, Richard III, crowned king Richard faced number of uprisings; killed in battle of Bosworth Field, 1485 Tudor Henry VII claimed throne, neither York nor Lancaster; new era began

12 Summarize How did fights over the thrones of England and France lead to conflict in medieval Europe? Answer(s): heirs unclear; dispute over French throne led to Hundred Years' War; dispute over English throne led to Wars of the Roses

13 Black Death Another crisis Different theories Origins Spread quickly
Hundred Years’ War took toll on English, French armies At same time another crisis struck, between 1347 and 1351 Black Death, deadly plague Different theories Historians unsure what disease was, or if single disease One theory, combination of two different plagues Bubonic, pneumonic Origins Brought to Europe by merchant sailors from Genoa Plague contracted in Asia Flea-infected rats moved from Genoa to European ports Spread quickly Plague traveled with merchants Spread quickly, struck coastal regions first, moved inland Almost all of Europe touched by Black Death by 1351

14 Black Death Course of the Disease Effects More Vacant Land
Black Death, one of worst global killers in all history Symptoms: dark splotches, high fever, vomiting, severe headaches Almost always fatal, most who caught plague died within days Priests and doctors who tended sick also caught plague, died Plague devastated Europe, Central Asia, North Africa, Byzantine Empire Varying responses to plague Most common, God’s punishment Some turned to witchcraft for cures Some blamed Jews, accused of poisoning water wells Led to increase in anticlericalism, anti-Semitic feelings in Europe Effects Loss of population left more vacant land, bought by wealthy Created more efficiently organized estates, used less labor Peasants moved to cities to find work Medieval manor system fell apart More Vacant Land


16 How did the Black Death help end the manorial system?
Analyze How did the Black Death help end the manorial system? Answer(s): reduced labor supply; survivors demanded wages; left manors for cities; manor system collapsed


18 Video The Impact of the Bubonic Plague
Click above to play the video.

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