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The Seven Pandemics.

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Presentation on theme: "The Seven Pandemics."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Seven Pandemics

2 The Seven Deadly Pandemics “Pan” = All “Demos” = People
Peloponnesian Plague 430 BC Antonine Plague 165 Plague of Justinian 541 The Black Death 1347 Cholera Epidemics (7) 1800’s The Spanish Flu 1918 The Asian Flu and

3 Peloponnesian Plague 430 BC /Anthrax
Began in Ethiopia At its Height During Athens War With Sparta Fatal After 7-8 Days Killed 33% of the Athenian Population

4 Peloponnesian Plague "As a rule, however, there was no ostensible cause; but people in good health were all of a sudden attacked by violent heats in the head, and redness and inflammation in the eyes, the inward parts, such as the throat or tongue, becoming bloody and emitting an unnatural and fetid breath." "These symptoms were followed by sneezing and hoarseness, after which the pain soon reached the chest, and produced a hard cough. When it fixed in the stomach, it upset it; and discharges of bile of every kind named by physicians ensued, accompanied by very great distress." "In most cases also an ineffectual retching followed, producing violent spasms, which in some cases ceased soon after, in others much later."

5 "Externally the body was not very hot to the touch, nor pale in its appearance, but reddish, livid, and breaking out into small pustules and ulcers. But internally it burned so that the patient could not bear to have on him clothing or linen even of the very lightest description; or indeed to be otherwise than stark naked. What they would have liked best would have been to throw themselves into cold water; as indeed was done by some of the neglected sick, who plunged into the rain-tanks in their agonies of unquenchable thirst; though it made no difference whether they drank little or much."

6 "Besides this, the miserable feeling of not being able to rest or sleep never ceased to torment them. The body meanwhile did not waste away so long as the distemper was at its height, but held out to a marvel against its ravages; so that when they succumbed, as in most cases, on the seventh or eighth day to the internal inflammation, they had still some strength in them.

7 But if they passed this stage, and the disease descended further into the bowels, inducing a violent ulceration there accompanied by severe diarrhea, this brought on a weakness which was generally fatal."

8 "For the disorder first settled in the head, ran its course from thence through the whole of the body, and even where it did not prove mortal, it still left its mark on the extremities; for it settled in the privy parts, the fingers and the toes, and many escaped with the loss of these, some too with that of their eyes. Others again were seized with an entire loss of memory on their first recovery, and did not know either themselves or their friends." Thucydides

9 Antonine Plague 165 / Smallpox
Carried by Roman Soldiers Returning From Campaign 25% Mortality Rate

10 Antonine Plague In 166, during the epidemic, the Greek physician and writer Galen traveled from Rome to his home in Asia Minor. He returned to Rome in 168 when summoned. Galen's observations and description of the epidemic, found in the treatise "Methodus Medendi", is brief.

11 He mentions fever, diarrhea, and inflammation of the pharynx, as well as a skin eruption, sometimes dry and sometimes pustular, appearing on the ninth day of the illness. The information provided by Galen does not clearly define the nature of the disease, but scholars have generally preferred to diagnose it as smallpox.



14 Justinian Plague 541/ Bubonic Plague
The disease was first noticed in an Egyptian harbor town, which was infected with a huge rat problem (as was most of Europe at this time). It then ripped through Alexandria on its northern invasion towards Syria and Palestine via ships. 40%-60% Mortality Rate

15 Procopius wrote "From there it seemed to spread all over the world, this catastrophe was so overwhelming that the human race appeared close to annihilation." The problem with this plague was that no one was sure of what caused it. In later years we have found out that the disease was caused by bacteria and parasites that used rats as hosts. These rats would then infect our drinking and eating sources, thus spreading the bacteria to hundreds of thousands of people.

16 It was written by Procopius that all victims appeared to experience similar symptoms.
"They had a sudden fever, some while sleeping, some while walking, and others while engaged without any regard of what they were doing." Soon after, the symptoms would escalate into a type of swelling. The abdomen, armpits, thighs, and ears were the most common body parts affected. The lymph glands were also commonly affected. They were called buboes and for this part of the body the illness was named.

17 Modern scholars believe that the plague killed up to 5,000 people per day in Constantinople at the peak of the pandemic. It ultimately killed perhaps 40 percent of the city's inhabitants. The initial plague went on to destroy up to a quarter of the human population of the eastern Mediterranean.

18 The Black Death / 1347 Bubonic Plague
Coming out of the East, the Black Death reached the shores of Italy in the spring of 1348 unleashing a rampage of death across Europe unprecedented in recorded history. By the time the epidemic played itself out three years later, anywhere between 25% and 50% of Europe's population had fallen victim to the pestilence.

19 "The symptoms were not the same as in the East, where a gush of blood from the nose was the plain sign of inevitable death; but it began both in men and women with certain swellings in the groin or under the armpit. They grew to the size of a small apple or an egg, more or less, and were vulgarly called tumours. In a short space of time these tumours spread from the two parts named all over the body. Soon after this the symptoms changed and the black or purple spots appeared on the arms or thighs or any other part of the body, sometimes a few large ones, sometimes many little ones. These spots were a certain sign of death, just as the original tumour had been and still remained.

20 No doctor's advice, no medicine could overcome or alleviate this disease, An enormous number of ignorant men and women set up as doctors in addition to those who were trained. Either the disease was such that no treatment was possible or the doctors were so ignorant that they did not know what caused it, and consequently could not administer the proper remedy. In any case very few recovered; most people died within about three days of the appearance of the tumours described above. A plague victim reveals the telltale buboe on his leg. From a 14th century illumination

21 The violence of this disease was such that the sick communicated it to the healthy who came near them, just as a fire catches anything dry or oily near it. And it even went further. To speak to or go near the sick brought infection and a common death to the living; and moreover, to touch the clothes or anything else the sick had touched or worn gave the disease to the person touching. “

22 "One citizen avoided another, hardly any neighbor troubled about others, relatives never or hardly ever visited each other. Moreover, such terror was struck into the hearts of men and women by this calamity, that brother abandoned brother, and the uncle his nephew, and the sister her brother, and very often the wife her husband. What is even worse and nearly incredible is that fathers and mothers refused to see and tend their children, as if they had not been theirs. Giovanni Boccaccio Italian Writer Who Lived Through the Plague



25 A physician visits a patient with the plague.
Notice how he and others are holding their noses.

26 Carrying Out the Dead

27 Excavated Mass Graves Dating From the Black Death in London

28 Cholera 7 Separate Pandemics with 6 Occurring During the 1800’s
Endemic in India Spread Along Trade Routes Hit Every Continent Except Antarctica Most Recent in 1961



31 Chicago Epidemic In 1849 the disease was brought to the city on the emigrant boat John Drew April 29 and raged until late October. That year 678 persons died, a rate of 2,897 per 100,000. This is the worst death rate for any cause since Chicago began keeping health statistics. Although the germ theory of disease was still unknown, Chicago did undertake a number of sanitary improvements which markedly reduced cholera and other diseases. The entire city was quarantined.

32 In the 1850's, a piped Lake Michigan water supply was introduced cutting reliance upon unsanitary wells and buckets of water from the sewage filled Chicago River.

33 An expanded drinking water tunnel--two miles out into the lake – was built in 1867 and effectively reduced the amount of sewage from the river in the water supply. Sewers were constructed starting in 1856 and expanded after the cholera epidemic of 1866. As sanitation efforts increased, the epidemic decreased.

34 As Cemeteries Filled, Bodies Were Burned Not Buried

35 Some, looking for a point of origin of the so-called Spanish influenza that would eventually take the lives of 600,000 Americans, point to Monday, March 11, Company cook Albert Gitchell (Fort Riley, Kansas) reported to the camp infirmary with complaints of a "bad cold." Right behind him came Corporal Lee W. Drake voicing similar complaints. By noon, camp surgeon Edward R. Schreiner had over 100 sick men on his hands, all apparently suffering from the same malady.

36 The Spanish Flu 1918 The 1918 flu pandemic (commonly referred to as the Spanish flu) was a category 5 influenza pandemic that started in the United States, appeared in West Africa and France and then spread to nearly every part of the globe. It was caused by an unusually severe and deadly Influenza A virus strain of subtype H1N1.

37 Many of its victims were healthy young adults, in contrast to most influenza outbreaks which predominantly affect juvenile, elderly, or otherwise weakened patients.


39 The Spanish flu pandemic came in three waves (March 1918 to June 1920), spreading even to the Arctic and remote Pacific islands. While older estimates put the number of killed at 40–50 million people, current estimates are that 50 million to 100 million people worldwide died, possibly more than that taken by the Black Death, and higher than the number killed in World War I. This extraordinary toll resulted from the extremely high infection rate of up to 50% and the extreme severity of the symptoms.

40 When Hospitals filled in the area, nurses set up in the Oakland Municipal Auditorium and used it as a temporary hospital.




44 Street car conductor in Seattle not allowing passengers aboard without a mask. 1918.



47 While possible origins of this influenza were debated and investigated, one fact remained inescapable: it was deadly. Lacking reliable medical defenses against influenza, public health officials and private citizens poured their energies into taking preventative measures.

48 The United States Public Health Service faced the challenge of educating the public about an illness that was largely a mystery. To that end, the Red Cross, Post Office, and Federal Railroad administration all did their part to assure that instructive posters adorned the entire nation.

49 Surgeon General Rupert Blue, the nation's Chief Public Health Officer, ordered the printing and distribution of pamphlets with titles like, "Spanish Influenza," "Three-Day-Fever," and "The Flu."

50 The Colgate company pitched in by placing ads detailing twelve steps to prevent influenza.
Among the recommendations: chew food carefully and avoid tight clothes and shoes.

51 Alfred Crosby, in "Epidemic and Peace, 1918," his definitive history of Spanish influenza, observed that if influenza could have been smothered by paper, many lives would have been spared.



54 A doctor stationed at Camp Devens, a military base just west of Boston, writes to a friend, and fellow physician, of the conditions to be found there as influenza was making its presence felt. “…This epidemic started about four weeks ago, and has developed so rapidly that the camp is demoralized and all ordinary work is held up till is has passed. All assemblages of soldiers taboo. These men start with what appears to be an attack of la grippe or influenza, and when brought to the hospital they very rapidly develop the most viscous type of pneumonia that has ever been seen. Two hours after admission they have the mahogany spots over the cheek bones, and a few hours later you can begin to see the cyanosis extending from their ears and spreading all over the face, until it is hard to distinguish the coloured men from the white.

55 It is only a matter of a few hours then until death comes, and it is simply a struggle for air until they suffocate. It is horrible. One can stand it to see one, two or twenty men die, but to see these poor devils dropping like flies sort of gets on your nerves. We have been averaging about 100 deaths per day, and still keeping it up. There is no doubt in my mind that there is a new mixed infection here, but what I don't know. My total time is taken up hunting rales, rales dry or moist, sibilant or crepitant or any other of the hundred things that one may find in the chest, they all mean but one thing here--pneumonia--and that means in about all cases death.

56 The normal number of doctors here is about 25 and that has been increased to over 250, all of whom (of course excepting me) have temporary orders-- "Return to your proper station on completion of work"--Mine says, "Permanent Duty," but I have been in the Army just long enough to learn that it doesn't always mean what it says. So I don't know what will happen to me at the end of this. We have lost an outrageous number of nurses and doctors, and the little town of Ayer is a sight. It takes special trains to carry away the dead. For several days there were no coffins and the bodies piled up something fierce, we used to go down to the morgue (which is just back of my ward) and look at the boys laid out in long rows. It beats any sight they ever had in France after a battle.

57 An extra long barracks has been vacated for the use of the morgue, and it would make any man sit up and take notice to walk down the long lines of dead soldiers all dressed up and laid out in double rows. We have no relief here; you get up in the morning at 5:30 and work steady till about 9:30 p.m., sleep, then go at it again. Some of the men of course have been here all the time, and they are tired. I write this in piecemeal fashion. It may be a long time before I can get another letter to you, but will try. Good-by old Pal, God be with you till we meet again”


59 The Asian Flu 1957 & 1968 In 1957, the Ford Motor Co. rolled out its infamous Edsel sedan; the world was in the midst of an escalating Cold War; the Soviet Union launched the first man-made satellite, Sputnik, into orbit; and President Eisenhower sent troops to Arkansas to protect African-American students while a Little Rock high school was being integrated.

60 In 1957, the world was also in the grip of a deadly influenza pandemic, known as the Asian flu. Although less severe than the 1918 Spanish flu that killed an estimated 50 million people, the 1957 Asian flu was ultimately responsible for 70,000 deaths in the United States and nearly 2 million deaths worldwide over the next year.



63 Normal activities were halted in order to restrict the spread of the flu.

64 Will There Be An Eighth?


66 Dire case of flu in Hong Kong September 23, 2008
Primary and secondary schools in Hong Kong have been temporarily closed down because of an illness with symptoms similar to flu. None of the experts can recognize what the virus is just yet. Closing the schools was mainly to stop parents worrying, and the schools are being disinfected. Experts hope that this will stop the illness spreading. People in Hong Kong are worried because they had S.A.R.S in 2003, which killed almost 300 people. This stands for severe acute respiratory syndrome.

67 Bird Flu Estimates predict 40% of the population will become infected.
Of those infected approximately 50-55% will probably die.

68 Why should we worry? On Sept , David Nabarro the newly appointed Senior U.N. System Coordinator for Avian and human influenza stated that if an outbreak reaches pandemic proportions then expect death toll from 5 million to 150 million people. Scientists estimate 1 to 1.2 billion deaths

69 VHA Report 2006 on Hospital Preparedness
Disaster Plans are in Place Inadequate Inventories of Critical Supplies No Problem – We just get more stuff from the manufacturers. Now Where are the Manufacturers?

70 Supply chain experts believe that interruptions in Asian manufacturing centers due to avian flue could severely impact replenishment options here.

71 But Is There Really a Threat?

72 In 2007, the number of human cases of avian flu dropped rather than rose for the first time -- from 115 in 2006 to an even more insignificant 86 in 2007. Frightening headlines warning of a pandemic that could kill 150 million people have all but vanished.


74 Most of the people who acquire the infection were, and still are, bird handlers in continuous contact with sick birds. How does this endanger workers in the United States? Research like this would typically be thrown in the trash if it did not strongly support some ulterior purpose. What might that purpose have been? Greed?

75 Who Profited? At $100 per dose, the U.S. used taxpayer’s dollars to purchase some 20 million doses of the highly questionable Tamiflu from Gilead Sciences. 20,000,000 x $100 = $2,000,000,000

76 They earned over seven billion dollars worldwide.
The president of Gilead Sciences when they created the drug was then Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld.

77 And Tamiflu Isn’t 100% Safe
Since the purported “outbreak” of bird flu, the Tamiflu vaccine has been linked to the deaths of 14 Japanese children, some of which suddenly jumped out of buildings. Neuropsychiatric incidents in children, including seizures, loss of consciousness, and delirium were linked to the vaccine. Tamiflu is now banned in Japan.

78 Who Shouldn’t Take Tamiflu?
Do Not Take if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances if you have kidney problems

79 Here’s the Kicker! When Tamiflu is used as directed (twice daily for 5 days) it can ONLY reduce the duration of your influenza symptoms by 1 to 1 ½ days, according to the official data. Why on earth would anyone want to take a drug that has a chance of killing you, was banned in Japan, is loaded with side effects that mimic the flu itself, costs over $100, and AT BEST can only provide 36 hours of SYMPTOM relief. 


81 President Obama declared the swine flu outbreak a national emergency empowering the health secretary to suspend federal requirements and speed up treatment. His declaration authorized Health and Human Services to bypass normal federal regulations so health officials could respond more quickly to the outbreak.

82 As of June 12, 2009, there had been only 145 deaths in the ENTIRE world from this illness. The United States had 27 deaths. Mexico had the majority of the deaths at 108.

83 More People Died From the Vaccine Than From the Flu!
CNN and the CDC report that nearly 3,900 people, including about 540 children, are believed to have died from the H1N1 flu vaccine in the first six months of the epidemic.

84 In a normal flu season the total number of deaths for children is about 100 from the vaccine.

85 Adverse Effects of the Vaccine
Guillian-Barre syndrome Brain Disorders Gastrointestinal Disorders Immune System Disorders Including Anaphylactic Reaction Convulsions ~ 3,587 Miscarriages

86 The creators of the vaccine refused to take the vaccine.
50% of all health care workers refused to take the vaccine.

87 2011 Study Results A shocking report from the National Coalition of Organized Women (NCOW) presented data from two different sources demonstrating that the 2009/10 H1N1 vaccines contributed to an estimated 1,588 miscarriages and stillbirths.  A corrected estimate may be as high as 3,587 cases. 

88 NCOW also highlights the disturbing fact that the CDC failed to inform their vaccine providers of the incoming data of the reports of suspected H1N1 vaccine related fetal demise. 

89 August 2, 2010 The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved vaccines for the 2010 to 2011 flu season that protect against 3 strains of influenza, including the 2009 H1N1 pandemic swine flu virus.


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