History w Humans vs. Microbes infections diseases plagues epidemics pandemics
Nursery Rhyme Ring- a - ring of rosies Pocketful of posies Achoo ! We all fall down.
Bubonic Plague or the Black Death w Epidemic swept thru Europe in the Middle Ages (13th and 14th centuries) w 40 million people were killed About 1/3 of the population of the continent w Etiological agent: Yersinia pestis Gram (-) rod w 2 Vectors Rat Flea
Yersinia pestis - Gram (-) bacillus Vectors - Rat and Flea
Bubonic Plague Infection w 1. Flea bite with Yersinia pestis w 2. Bacteria multiply in the bloodstream Bacteremia w 3. Bacteria localize in lymph nodes, especially axillary and groin areas
4. Hemorrhaging occurs in lymph nodes, resulting in “black and blue” swellings or Buboes (hence the name Bubonic Plague or Black Death)
Bubonic Plague Infection w 5. If untreated, about 50 % Mortality Rate w 6. If bacteria spread to the lungs, it becomes Pneumonic Plague and is now highly contagious (Almost a 99 % Mortality Rate)
Nursery Rhyme Ring - a - ring of rosies, A pocketful of posies Achoo ! We all fall down.
Humans vs. Microbes w 1. Most of History, microbes have been winning the battle w 2. In the last 100 yrs or so the battle has swung in our favor Why? Because of our increasing knowledge of how to Control Microbial Growth
Smallpox Variola virus Eradicated in 1977 (Somalia)
Methods to Control Microbial Growth w 1. Physical w 2. Chemical
Terms used: w Sterilization vs. Disinfection w Sterilization destroying all forms of life w Disinfection destroying pathogens or unwanted organisms
w Disinfectant vs. Antiseptic w Disinfectant antimicrobial agent used on inanimate objects w Antiseptic antimicrobial agent used on living tissue
cidal vs. static w Bactericidal - kills bacteria w Bacteristatic - inhibits bacterial growth w Fungicidal w Fungistatic w Algacidal w Algastatic
Factors that effect Antimicrobial Activity w 1. Temp w 2. Time w 3. Concentration of Antimicrobial agent w 4. Type of Microbe w 5. Activity of Microbe w 6. Presence of organic matter
Targets of Antimicrobial Agents w 1. Cell membrane w 2. Enzymes & Proteins w 3. DNA & RNA
Physical Methods of Microbial Control w 1. Heat works by denaturing enzymes and proteins w A. Thermal Death Point (TDP) lowest temp. at which all microorganism in a liquid culture are killed in 10 minutes w B. Thermal Death Time (TDT) minimum length of time in which all microorganisms in a liquid culture are killed at a given temperature
Moist Heat w 1. Boiling Water kills vegetative bacterial cells, Fungi and many viruses not effective for endospores and some viruses Hepititis (20 min) Some spores may survive boiling water for up to 20 hrs
Moist Heat w 2. Autoclave (Steam under pressure) preferred method of sterilization Water boils at 100 C Increasing the pressure raises the Temp. 15 lbs./ per sq. inch (psi) ------> 121 C 121 C for 15 min.
Kilit Ampule w Spores of Bacillus stearothermophilus w fermentable sugar w pH indicator basic - red acid - yellow
Dry Heat w 1. Direct Flaming Inoculating Loop and Needle 100% effective w 2. Incineration disposable wastes (paper cups, bags, dressings) w 3. Hot Air Sterilization Oven ( 170 C for 2 hours) used on substances that would be damaged by moist heat sterilization gauzes, dressings or powders
Filtration w Removes microorganisms from solutions that might be damaged by heat culture media enzymes vaccines antibiotics
Radiation w 1. Ionizing Radiation gamma rays & x-rays penetrates most substances w Used on substances that could be damaged by heat plastic petri dishes plastic syringes catheters surgical gloves
Radiation w 2. Non-Ionizing Radiation UV Light does not penetrate plastic, glass or proteinaceous matter w Used to reduce microbial populations hospital rooms nurseries operating rooms Thymine Dimers
Pasteurization w Disinfection - not sterilization (removes unwanted organisms) w Mycobacterium tuberculosis w 63 C for 30 minutes w 72 C for 15 seconds (HTST) w Thermodurics able to survive high temps.
Methods used to control Microbial Growth w 1. Heat Moist Heat Boiling Water Steam Heat (Autoclave) Dry Heat Direct Flaming Incineration Hot Air Sterilization (Oven) w 2. Filtration w 3. Radiation Ionizing Radiation Non-Ionizing Radiation w 4. Pasteurization (Heat)