3 Why is the Black Death Important? Killed over 1/3 of Europe’s population(Between 20 to 25 million people!)Greatly impacted the economic, social, cultural, religious, and political make up of Europe
4 Curriculum Outcome: Describe the Black Death Unit Objectives: The student will be able to:Apply a modified version of the historical method of inquiry to examine and analyze a primary source painting from the Black Death time periodExamine a primary source reading to identify the symptoms and reactions of people to the Black DeathParticipate in a lecture/discussion/note taking activity about the causes, transmission, reactions, and economic impacts of the Black DeathRead and extract important information about the impact of the Black Death on the economy and society of Europe in a homework assignment
5 Unit objectives continued: Examine the geographic theme of diffusion by studying the path followed by the plagueView and understand a PBS video explaining the historical & scientific research that was used to identify a genetic mutation that protected people from the Black Death and compare/contrast it to other diseaseRead a scientific article about the spread of the Black Death and AIDSComplete a graphic organizer to compare/contrast the Black Death & AIDSDescribe the Black Death on a Quiz
6 Addressed Standards: Social Studies Standards: History 1---Chronology & historical phenomenaHistory 2—Research/examination of primary sourcesHistory 4---Content—Transition from Middle Ages to Renaissance—Black DeathGeography 1---Movement (Diffusion)Economics---Impact on Economy
7 Addressed Standards: Science Standards 1, 6, & 7 English 1 Health Professions Integration
8 What were the political, economic, and social effects of the Black Death??
9 Homework After the Religions Test The Black Death Reading StudyguideRead and highlight important facts on pages 2,3, & 5 of the handout. Then complete the following questions.Read & complete the map activity on page 4.
10 Day 1 Plan Turn in Homework (Reading Questions) Warm-up: Primary Painting on the Black Death Examination/DiscussionThink/Pair/Share: “Avoid it like the Plague”Background of The Black DeathPrimary Source Reading & Notes on Black DeathGraphic Organizer notes & Visuals on Black DeathHW: Black Death quote writing assignment
11 Warm-up:Examine the primary source painting and answer the questions.
13 “The Triumph of Death” Pieter Brueghel (1530-1569) What do you see?Describe the landscape.What kinds of activities are the people doing?What seems realistic?/Unrealistic?How do you feel looking at this painting?What is implied in the painting?What kind of story is the artist trying to tell?
16 The Danse MacabreInspired by Black Death, Danse Macabre is an allegory on the universality of death and a common painting motive in late-medieval periods.From the Dance of Death by Hans Holbein the Younger (1491).
18 Painted in 1485 by Hieronymous Bosch, Death and the Miser is an allegorical work of art that reflects the impact of religion and disease on European society during the Middle Ages. The painting focuses on an old miser dying in his bed and staring at a shrouded skeleton walking through the door. The same miser is depicted again at the bottom of the painting as a younger and healthier man placing coins into a lockbox.
20 The doctor's robe. The nose of the sinister costume was supposed to act as a filter, being filled with materials imbued with perfumes and alleged disinfectants. The lenses were supposed to protect the eyes from the miasmas. Illustration from Historiarum anatomicarum medicarum (1661), by Thomas Bartholin.
21 “Avoid it like the Plague” Explain the above expression/quote usinga Think/Pair/Share.
22 Timeline of Black Death Middle Ages ( ) Reign of Kind Charlemagne 900 Arab Physician Rhases identifies plague, smallpox, and rabies as infectious Crusades Black DeathRenaissance ( )1450 Gutenberg invents printing press Columbus discovers America Leonardo Da Vinci paints the Mona Lisa Severe outbreaks of plague in England General outbreaks of plague in EuropeAfter the Renaissance1665 GREAT PLAGUE OF LONDONTimeline of Black Death
23 Have you ever sang this nursery rhyme? A chilling rhyme would evolve from the symptoms of the dying and sentiments of the living… "Ring around the rosie, A pocketful of posie, Ashes, Ashes, All fall down."
24 How does it relate to the black Death? The symptoms of the disease included a rosy red rash in the shape of a ring on the skin (Ring around the rosy).Pockets and pouches were filled with sweet smelling herbs ( or posies) which were carried due to the belief that the disease was transmitted by bad smells.The term "Ashes Ashes" refers to the cremation of the dead bodies! The death rate was over 60% and the plague was only halted by the Great Fire of London in 1666 which killed the rats which carried the disease which was transmitting via water sources.
25 The English version of it “Ring a ring of roses,A pocket full of posies,Atishoo, atishoo,We all fall down.”The English version of "Ring around the rosy" replaces Ashes with (Atishoo, Atishoo) as violent sneezing was another symptom of the disease and was closely followed by 'falling down' or sudden death.
26 Let’s examine this Primary Source With a partner read the account of the Black Death written by Michael Platiensis in 1357.Find out the symptoms of the Black Death and how it affected peopleThen complete the chart
27 Symptoms of the PlagueInfection spread to everyone who had intercourse (came into contact) with the diseasedPain throughout whole bodyBoils on thighs and upper armsVomiting of bloodInfection spread to people who touched or used the things of the diseased
28 Septicemia Form: almost 100% mortality rate. The SymptomsBulbousSepticemia Form: almost 100% mortality rate.
29 Reactions to the Plague Men hated others because of diseaseFather would not tend a son with diseasePeople confessed sins and drew up last will & testamentEcclesiastics, lawyers, & attorneys refused to enter the homes of the diseasedRelatives of dead would not enter homes of the deadServants were paid high wages to bury the dead
30 More Reactions… Servant shortage because they died from the disease Groups of people (Messinians) emigrated or moved to try to escape plagueMany people hoped the Saints would deliver them from the disease—wanted relics & bones of Saints brought to their towns
31 More Reactions… People made pilgrimages hoping God would help them Buried bodies outside of town wallsPeople in Catania would not help the people trying to escape the diseaseAll ecclesiastics given the priestly powers of absolution of sins
32 Attempts to Stop the Plague A Doctor’s Robe“Leeching”
33 Attempts to Stop the Plague Flagellanti: Self-inflicted “penance” for our sins!
34 Attempts to Stop the Plague Pograms against the Jews“Golden Circle” obligatory badge“Jew” hat
36 Day 1 Homework Examine a primary source quote Boccaccio said that the victims, "ate lunch with their friend and dinner with their ancestors in paradise."What did he mean in this quote?Your answer should be at least five sentences.
37 “3,2,1” Exit Slip 3 things you found out 2 interesting things 1 question you still haveComplete paper and hand in as you leave class
38 Day 2 Plan Warm-up: Respond to the statistic Think/Pair/Share Video: “The Mystery of the Black Death” & studyguide questionsArticle: “ Black Death and AIDS”HW: Venn Diagram on the Black Death & AIDS
39 Respond to this statistic “Every 25 seconds another person in Africa gets infected with HIV”Write down your thoughts…What are some similarities between the Black Death & AIDS?
40 View the PBS specialAnswer the questionsDiscuss as a class
41 Quarantined Houses once a family got sick Doctors wore masks List 4 ways in which people tried to prevent/control the Plague.Quarantined TownsQuarantined Houses once a family got sickDoctors wore masks
42 What gave some people the power to survive this deadly plague What is the great mystery concerning the Plague?What gave some people the power to survive this deadly plague
43 Why was the town of Eyam, England chosen to solve this mystery? Town was quarantined but ½ of the people survived; some who had the plague even survivedGenes (DNA) of those people’s descendants can be tested
44 How is the plague like/not like Anthrax? Animal anthrax shared symptoms with the plagueDiffers in that it was transmitted through the air, kills in 48 hours
45 Explain the importance of the following people in solving the mystery of the Plague. Elizabeth Hancock—all six members of her family died; she nursed them but survivedSteve Crohn---partner of a homosexual who died of AIDS; high risk behavior that did not lead to AIDSMargaret Blackwell---she had the plague but survived
46 What is Delta 32? How does it stop the spread of the Plague and Aids? Delta 32 is a genetic mutation that could block the plague from entering the blood cells; created resistanceGenetic mistake that gave some people protection from the plagueDelta genetic resistance to AIDS
47 Day 2 HomeworkUse information from the video: “The Mystery of the Black Death” & studyguide questions and the article: “ Black Death and AIDS” toComplete the Venn Diagram or the compare/contrast chart on the Black Death & AIDS
48 Exit Slip Day 2 1.What is significant about the Delta 32 discovery? 2.What role did primary resource research play in the Delta 32 discovery?
49 Day 3 Plan Warm-up: Examine Primary Source Quote of Poet John Donne. Review of Black Death Reading StudyguideImpact of Black Death Think/Pair/ShareReview of VennHomework: Study for Black Death Test
50 Warm-up:Never send to know for whom the bell tolls; it tolls for thee."Poet John Donne wrote these lines in his "Meditation XVII" as the feared Black Death ravaged his native London in 1624.What did he mean by this quote?
52 What were some of the symptoms of the Black Death? Black, egg-sized lumps, oozing blood & pus, formed in the armpits & groins;Boils & blacked spots dotted bodies; Foul smell—wounds, blood, sweat, & breath;Black skin & tongue; some coughed up blackened blood; intense pain; quick death
53 Illustration of the Black Death from the Toggenburg Bible (1411).
54 Why did the city officials try to keep the trade ships out of Messina? To keep the disease from spreading to their city
55 What happened when people fled towns and cities infected with the Black Death? They spread the illness further & faster.
56 What caused the Black Death or bubonic plague? It was caused by bacteria, which developed in the blood of a certain flea. The fleas spread the disease to rats. The fleas bit the rats by inserting a pricker into the rat to feast on its blood. With the inflected flea’s stomach blocked, it would regurgitate the rat’s blood along with the plague bacteria.
58 How was the bubonic plague spread to humans? A bite from an infected rat or flea could then pass the infection to a human. Farm animals, such as sheep and hogs also contacted the disease and spread it to their masters.
60 Where did the bubonic plague start? How did it spread to Europe? It probably began in China, and then spread to central Asia, then to India and Persia. Then to Syria, Egypt, and Asia Minor (Turkey). Trade ships and land caravans from the East spread the disease to Europe. Also central Asians warriors may have also brought the disease to Europe when they invaded in 1346.
68 How was the bubonic plague used as a war tactic? Warriors loaded bodies of dead in catapults and flung them over the walls into the city of their enemies.
69 How did people try to escape the Black Death? They fled the infected cities and towns. People stayed to themselves, refusing to come into contact with outsiders, even their own servants. Family members abandoned one another.
70 How did the Black Death nearly drive some people insane? Many danced wildly in graveyards hoping to drive away the evil spirits that brought the disease to their town. Also hoped to keep dead from arising to spread the disease. Many danced themselves into exhaustion or died of self-induced fear.
71 Flagellants practiced self-flogging to atone for sins Flagellants practiced self-flogging to atone for sins. The movement became popular after general disillusionment with the church's reaction to the Black Death.
72 How many people died from the Black Death? 20 million or 1/3 of Europe’s population
73 ActivityPass out color cards at the beginning of class. Have students put them on their desk. After this questions, have students move with their cards to the center of the room. Then have 1/3 of the students ,indicated by their card color, move to the side of the room. Examine the remaining number of students to illustrate the great loss of the Black Death.
74 What are some reasons why the Black Death killed so many people in Europe? People tried to flee it and ended up spreading it faster & furtherPeople did not know what caused it—ineffective treatmentsVery contagious diseaseVery quick disease—most people died within three daysDoctors caught it from patientsPriests caught it from peopleFarmers caught it from livestockCities—filth—rats were common—rats carried the disease
75 Negative Effects of the Black Death Jews were blamed for plague and killedBrought out the worst in peoplePeople farmed less, produced fewer goods, and became less enterprising---economies plunged into chaosFood grew scarcePrices rose causing inflationScarcity of labor
76 Positive Effects of the Black Death Worker shortage caused worth of labor to increasePeasants gained economic powerPeasants escaped feudal servicesSerfs gained freedomPeasants became landownersSurvivors were wealthier and bought more
77 More Positive Effects… Inflation declinedBusiness flourished, great trading centers were established in towns and citiesIncrease in profitsNew banking industry, accounting firms & large international trading companiesimprovement in standard of living
79 Think/Pair/Share Evaluate which effect had the greatest impact Explain your reasoningUse the Think/Pair/Share to record your answers
80 Something to think about…. What other measures might have been taken under 14th century conditions had the transmission of the plague through fleas and rats, as well as by direct human to human transmission, been known?