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Ancient Plague and Modern Menace Christy Mackenzie Yersinia pestis.

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Presentation on theme: "Ancient Plague and Modern Menace Christy Mackenzie Yersinia pestis."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ancient Plague and Modern Menace Christy Mackenzie Yersinia pestis

2 General Outline History and Relevance General Biology Pathogenesis Detection Images on first slide: fleas/bdeath/Doctor.html This slide:

3 History of Plague Three major historical epidemics: 700-600 BCE, 14th-17th C, 1855- present day Black Death: 1347-1351 Recent Outbreaks jay/ThePlague.html

4 Present-day Relevance World-wide spread Bioterrorism Re-emergence - Madagascar

5 General Biology Hosts Symptoms Transmission Cycle Diagnosis Treatment cromo/crom0011.htm

6 Hosts of Yersinia pestis Mammalian Human Rodent Insect Xenopsylla cheopis 2000/09/12/52.asp microsites/H/history/plaegu/plague.html Science Picture Library

7 Symptoms Bubonic Pneumonic Septicemic labs/lhbp/hinnebusch.htm WestCivI/the8.htm cbr/L1C-m2.html

8 Transmission Cycles vcrc/plague.html

9 Diagnosis “Diagnosis is based primarily on clinical suspicion” - USAMRIID Staining Culture

10 Treatment ANTIBIOTICS! Development of resistant strains

11 Pathogenesis  Evolution  Plasmids  Type III Secretion  Virulence Factors black/death_0.htm

12 Evolution  Yersinia family -pestis -pestis -pseudotuberculosis -pseudotuberculosis  Genomics -Shared Characters -Shared Characters -Divergence -Divergence -- inactivation -- inactivation atlas.php?kingdom=Bacteria&segmentid=Ypestis_Mediaevails_Main&type=cruciformatlas

13 Plasmids   pPCP1  pPMT1  pCD1

14 Type III Secretion  Injectisome  Yops Cornelis, 2002.

15 Antiphagocytosis

16 Virulence Factors  Invasins  Tyrosine Phosphatase

17 Temperature Dependency

18 Detection  Rapid Detection Test ecf.asp TEC01.asp

19 Detection  APDS Autonomous Pathogen Detection System Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

20 Conclusion

21 References Bossi, P. A Tegnell, A Baka, F Van Loock, J Hendriks, A Werner,,H Maidhof, G Gouvras. Bichat Guidelines for the Clinical Management of Plague and Bioterrorism-Related Plague. Euro Surveill. 2004 Dec 01 9(12) (ePub). CDC Strategic Working Group. Biological and Chemical Terrorism: Strategic Plan for Preparedness and Response. CDC:MMWR. April 21, 2000. 49:1-14. CDC Plague Home page (and linked sites). Found at Reviewed Mar. 30, 2005. Chamberlain, Neal R. Lecture on Plague. 8/3/2004. Found at Chanteau, Suzanne, Lila Rahalison, Lalao Ralafiarisoa, Jeanine Foulon, Mahery Ratsitorahina, Lala Ratsifasoamanana, Elisabeth Carniel and Farida Nato. Development and Testing of a Rapid Diagnostic Test for Bubonic and Pneumonic Plague. 2003. The Lancet. 361(9353):211-216. Cornelis, Guy R. Yersinia type III secretion: send in the effectors. The Journal of Cell Biology. August 5, 2002. 158(3):401-408 Cowan, Clarissa, Heather Jones, Yasemin Kaya, Robert Perry, and Susan Straley. Invasion of Epithelial Cells by Yersinia pestis: Evidence for a Y. pestis-Specific Invasin. Infect Immun. Aug 2000. 68(8):4523-4530. Gage, Kenneth L, and Michael Y Kosoy. Natural History of Plague: Perspectives from More than a Century of Research. Annu. Rev. Entomo. 2005. 50: 505-528. Galimand, Marc, Annie Guiyoule, Guy Gerbaud, Bruno Rasoamanana, M.D., Suzanne Chanteau, Ph.D., Elisabeth Carniel, M.D., Ph.D., and Patrice Courvalin, M.D. Multidrug Resistance in Yersinia pestis Mediated by a Transferable Plasmid. NEJM. Sept 4, 1997. 337:677-681. Girard, Jessica M, David M Wagner, Amy J Vogler, Christine Keys, Christopher J Allender, Lee C Drickamer and Paul Keim. Differential plague-transmission dynamics determine Yersinia pestis population genetic structure on local, regional and global scales. PNAS. June 1, 2004. Vol. 101, no 22:8408-8413.

22 References cont. Franz D, P Jahrling, A Friedlander, et al. Clinical Recognition and management of patients exposed to biological warfare agents. JAMA 1997. 278:399-411. McBride, MT, D Masquelier, BJ Hindson, AJ Makarewicz, S Brown, K Burris, Thomas Metz, RG Langlois, KW Tsang, R Bryan, DA Anderson, KS Venkateswaran, FP Milanovich and BW Colston. Autonomous Detection of Aerosolized Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis. Anal. Chem. 2003 75(20):5293,5299 McGovern, Thomas W and Arthur M Friedlander. Plague. The Textbooks of Military Medicine. Found at Motin, VL, AM Georgescu, JP Fitch, PP Gu, DO Nelson, SL Mabery, JB Garnham, BA Sokhansanj, LL Ott, MA Coleman, JM Elliott, LM Kegelmeyer, AJ Wyrobek, TR Slezak, RR Brubaker, and E Garcia. Temporal Global Changes in Gene Expression during Temperature Transition in Yersinia pestis. Journal of Bacteriology. Sep 2004. 186(18):6298-6305. USAMRIID: Medical Management of Biological Casualties Handbook. Plague. Found at

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