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University College Dublin Social, Cultural and Disability Awareness (HDRS) Convenor: Professor P.N. Walsh and Models and Philosophies (HDDDS) Convenor:

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Presentation on theme: "University College Dublin Social, Cultural and Disability Awareness (HDRS) Convenor: Professor P.N. Walsh and Models and Philosophies (HDDDS) Convenor:"— Presentation transcript:

1 University College Dublin Social, Cultural and Disability Awareness (HDRS) Convenor: Professor P.N. Walsh and Models and Philosophies (HDDDS) Convenor: Dr. John Hillery Disability Studies and Models of Disability: An introduction 17 September 2004

2 University College Dublin This seminar Introduction to disability studies Models of disability Medical Social Universal Other models: - Content and objectives of this module Briefing on assignment due 13 December 2004 Guidelines for good practice – Recommended reading, references, citations Discussion

3 University College Dublin From: Handbook of Disability Studies (Albrecht et al., 2001) Disability is both a private and public experience Disability studies is an emergent field with intellectual roots in the social sciences, humanities and rehabilitation sciences. Multiple perspectives include: disabled people, academic audience and those interested in forming social welfare policies (p. 2).

4 University College Dublin Defining disability …an enigma that we experience but do not necessarily understand (Albrecht et al., 2001) (it is)...directly tied to the moral principles of western cultures (Stiker, 1997) …not simply an attribute of a person but a complex collection of conditions, activities and relationships, many of which are created by the social environment (Bickenbach et al., 1999)

5 University College Dublin Models: 1- Medical Presumed biological reality of impairment = starting point Functional limitations that person has = focus for rehabilitation, other interventions Recent medical approaches adopt wider, multidimensional perspectives –Williams, 2001: Theorizing Disablity (In: Albrecht et al., 2001)

6 University College Dublin 2 - Social Models of Disability Individual experiences - Helen Keller, others Social constructivist view of knowledge Development of social model of disability: See work of Linton, Oliver, Davis, inter alia. Handicaps as…social disadvantages that arise from the social reception of impairments and disabilities...(Bickenbach, 1993).

7 University College Dublin 3 - Universalism: Bickenbach et al., 1999 Disablement understood as an identifiable variation of human functioning with 3 dimensions: –Impairments –Activity limitations –Participation restrictions ICIDH-2 - development and status Criticisms from disability constituency Which models generate valuable research? –Bickenbach et al., 1999

8 University College Dublin 4 - Emerging Models? Models reflect intellectual thinking of a time and place Evolution likely to continue Be critical: assumptions, sources, implications and testing power Today - –human rights model endorsed by EU - (see: Quinn & Bruce, 2003) Current debates about UN Convention –cross-cutting issues

9 University College Dublin Well-established link between poverty and the prevalence of (mild/moderate) ID Higher prevalence of severe ID among some minority ethnic communities who are more likely to experience poverty Bringing up a child with severe disabilities is likely to have an impact on a family’s entry into and escape from poverty * Emerson, 2004 The risk of poverty

10 University College Dublin Poverty & Intellectual Disability (in the World’s Richer Countries) Eric Emerson Institute for Health Research Lancaster University, UK

11 University College Dublin The Impact of Poverty on Health & Development Mortality –Infant & childhood –CHD Health & disability (including mental health) Family functioning Cognitive & linguistic development Academic attainment

12 University College Dublin Poverty … ‘Fundamentally, poverty is a denial of choices and opportunities, a violation of human dignity. It means lack of basic capacity to participate effectively in society.’ - UN Economic & Social Council (1998)

13 University College Dublin Child Poverty in Rich Countries (Slide from: Emerson 2004) Poverty Defined: Living in household with less than 50% of national median household income (before housing costs) Source: Unicef (2000). A League Table of Child Poverty in Rich Nations. Florence: Unicef

14 University College Dublin Institutional history of disability (Braddock & Parish, 2001) impairment and disability changing perceptions of poverty intellectual disability and mental illness Institutions emerge: Bethlem Hospital, UK (1403), San Hipólito, Mexico City (1566) 19th century - Residences Training schools Deaf community

15 University College Dublin Institutional history of disability: the 20th century (Braddock & Parish, 2001) Institutional model expands Social model Beginnings of deinstitutionalization Political activism - right to treatment Self-advocacy International disability rights initiatives

16 University College Dublin Institutional history of disability: an Irish perspective (from: McCormack, 2004: In: Walsh & Gash, eds.) The Dublin House of Industry in North Brunswick Street was a typical catch-all institution, a one-stop solution to every social problem: a place for beggars, for the ill, the disabled, the destitute and the troublesome (chapter 2).

17 University College Dublin Intellectual disabilities - USA history For a very useful and stimulating history of mental retardation (intellectual disability) in the United States, see: Trent, J.W., Inventing the Feeble Mind. Berkeley: University of California Press.

18 University College Dublin Some cross-cutting issues human development children’s rights human rights health ageing justice poverty

19 University College Dublin Good Practice Guidelines Ethical issues Theoretical framework Lived experience History - Philosophy - other disciplines for analysis Interventions Evidence References - Harvard system Participation in the courses

20 University College Dublin Content and objectives Social, Cultural and Disability Awareness (HDRS)

21 University College Dublin Recommended reading Albrecht, G. Seelman, K. & Bury, M. (2001). Handbook of Disability Studies. Thousand Oaks CA: Sage. –Available in library Quin, S. & Redmond, B. (2003). Disability and Social Policy in Ireland. Dublin: UCD Press. –Available in library - copies ordered for campus bookstore. Walsh, PN & Gash, H (eds.) (2004). Lives and Times: Practice, Policy and People with Disability. Dublin: Ravenwell. This book comprises 16 chapters citing published evidence, key policies and examples of good practice related to supports for people with intellectual disabilities across the lifespan. –Copies ordered for campus bookstore

22 University College Dublin Additional reading Berkson, G. (2004). Intellectual and physical disabilities in prehistory and early civilization. Mental Retardation 42, –Copy of this article is available in CDS Ingstad, B. & Whyte, S.R. (1995). Disability and Culture. Berkeley: University of California Press. –Copy of this book available in CDS Walsh, PN & LeRoy, B. (2004). Women with Disabilities Aging Well: A global view (Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes) –Copies ordered for campus bookstore


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