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LAW AND POVERTY Professor Bill Quigley Historical Development of Law and Poverty.

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Presentation on theme: "LAW AND POVERTY Professor Bill Quigley Historical Development of Law and Poverty."— Presentation transcript:


2 LAW AND POVERTY Professor Bill Quigley

3 Historical Development of Law and Poverty

4 English Poor Laws

5 Map of England

6 Feudalism

7 From Murraystate poor law show

8 Edward III 1327-1377

9 1349-1350 Statutes of Laborers Edward III prohibition of begging prohibition of almsgiving compulsory work for all under 60 maximum wages people restricted to own town

10 Categorization of poor on ability to work Able-bodied? Disabled?


12 1531 - 1536 Poor Relief Statutes positive obligations and negative sanctions

13 1531 - 1536 Negative Sanctions punishment of beggars and vagabonds worries about the wandering poor only licensed poor were allowed to bet only aged and disabled were given licenses begging without a license was a crime crime to give $ to non-licensed beggars poor begging children (5 to 14) could be taken from families as apprentices

14 1531 - 1536 Positive Obligations local responsibility for disabled or aged poor local financing and administration punishment for those who refused to work assistance limited to three year residents

15 1563 Statute of Artificers compulsory work for poor could not leave community without written permission poor children as young as 1 were apprenticed

16 Elizabethan Poor Law of 1601 Local Responsibility (parish) Primary Family Responsibility Settlement and Removal


18 Elizabethan Poor Law of 1601 divided poor people into four groups: needy neighbors who could not work needy neighbors who could work needy strangers who could not work needy strangers who could work Only help was for first group

19 Settlement and Removal only helped worthy residents who were settled in jurisdiction (parish) outsiders, even worthy, were removed

20 1822 English poor rate summons from

21 1747 English poor rate settlement document from

22 English poor rate removal notice 1836 from

23 Colonial Poor Laws

24 came from English Poor Laws built on Puritan Ideology use Public-Private Partnership

25 Key Elements of Colonial Poor Laws Local Responsibility (parish) Inter-generational Family Responsibility Settlement Laws Forced Imprisonment for the Idle

26 Colonial Settlement Followed English Law Especially poor arrivals by ship

27 Ship from Sailing Ships and Their Stories by E. Keble Chatterton

28 Who Were the Poor in Colonies? Apprenticed children (Including those working off parents’ debt) Indentured servants Slaves Widows, orphans, abandoned women and children Mentally and physically disabled

29 United States of American until Civil War followed mostly colonial poor laws local responsibility (county or town) settlement and removal family responsibility anti-immigrant poor

30 7 year indenture of John Broad to George Washington, December 21, 1773

31 April 19, 1809 contract between Thomas Jefferson and James Madison for sale of remainder of the terms of service for indentured servant, John Freeman, likely a indentured free black man, for term of 76 1/2 monts for $400. (Carter Woodson collection)

32 Slave pen in Alexandria, VA 1862

33 Slave auction poster

34 Slave pen in Alexandria, VA

35 Native Americans homestead in Sandhills

36 Debtor’s prison in Accomoac, VA made from a picture postcard by Mayrose Co., Linden, NJ

37 Movement Towards Institutional Relief Outdoor relief: assistance in own homes Indoor relief: assistance in governmental setting

38 1834 Poor Law Reforms in England (and others in USA) helping poor people was hurting them poor people were lazy and immoral $ was going to drink and wild lives So… Less Eligibility (make lowest paid worker better off than best poor person) Stigmatize poor relief Consolidate and centralize poor relief

39 Institutional Poor Relief Houses of Correction Almshouses County Poor Houses Poor Farms Workhouses Asylums

40 Civil War to New Deal Who were the poor? –Victims of war, widows, orphans –Disabled –Freed Slaves What were the changes? –More institutions –Increase in private philanthropy –States starting to accept responsibility –State laws on minimum wage, preventing child labor, etc.

41 American Memory/Library of Congress-Historic American Buildings Survey/Historic American Engineering Record Catalog No.: HABS.RI.4-PROV.131-1

42 American Memory/Library of Congress-Historic American Buildings Survey/Historic American Engineering Record Catalog No.: HABS.RI.4-PROV.131-2

43 American Memory/Library of Congress-Historic American Buildings Survey/Historic American Engineering Record Catalog No.: HABS.RI.4-PROV.131-3

44 State lunatic asylum, Buffalo, NY, built 1871 Catalog No.: HABS No. NY 0 5606

45 Southern Ohio lunatic asylum, Dayton, Ohio. Erected 1855 Catalog No.: HABS No. OH-2222-3

46 New Orleans female orphan asylum and Margaret Monument, pic taken 1890

47 Orphan asylum, Charleston, SC

48 Rendering of St. Elizaeth’s Orphanage, 1314 Napoleon Ave.


50 Cook Co. Poor Farm, Oak Forest, IL, east view Library of Congress Call No: Illinois, no. 21 Collection: Panoramic photographs

51 Door to poorhouse

52 Old poorhouse, Germantown, c 1807

53 Workhouse rules, 1831 Aylesburg, England

54 Poorhouse by Charles Hoffman, c 1865, National Gallery of Art

55 Men in workhouse

56 Mealtime at St. Pancras from

57 Lewis Hine, photographer


59 Child workers, factory, Baltimore 6/7/09, Lewis Hine, photographer

60 W. A. Rogers cartoon (look for British flag and small boat coming out from NYC dynamite) from

61 Causes of New Deal 25% of workforce unemployed Many displaced, urban and rural State and locals unable to shoulder burden of poor People could see the poor

62 Migrant family in auto camp in California, 1936 The Library of Congress/American Memory Archival TIFF versuib

63 Dispossessed Arkansas farmers in Bakersfield, CA 1935

64 Squatter’s Camp, 1936

65 1937, Mississippi sharecroppers in Cleveland, MS

66 depression; social security poster; children getting working papers, 1908, Lewis Hine, photographer; 9:00 p.m. in glass factory, Indianapolic, 1908, 1 Hine photo; slave dealer, Alexandria, VA, c 1860

67 Breadline on Times Square, December 8, 1930 from AP photo file

68 Soup kitchen sponsored by Al Capone,

69 Responses of New Deal Federal effort to address some poverty Social security for aged Child labor laws Unemployment compensation Aid to Families Dependent children

70 Bismarck

71 Franklin Roosevelt


73 Unemployed workers signing up for unemployment comp


75 Iowa family, federal relief 1936

76 War on Poverty Medicare Medicaid Food Stamps

77 First medicare card, 9/1/65 -

78 Retrenchment Cutbacks in mothers and children in welfare Cutbacks on immigrants


80 George Washington

81 Lyndon Johnson

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