Presentation on theme: "What type of colony was Georgia in 1754?"— Presentation transcript:
1 What type of colony was Georgia in 1754? Georgia ceased to be a proprietary colony and became a royal colony in like this colony of royal penguins (king penguins) in South Georgia!!!!
2 What was the difference between a proprietary colony and a royal colony? A proprietary colony was one that was governed by a board of trustees, while a royal colony was one directly governed by the king
4 Who were the puritans and where did they settle? The puritans were a religious group who moved from South Carolina to 32,000 acres of land in what is today Midway, Georgia.. They moved there bringing their slaves with them and established rice and indigo plantations.
6 How did the King maintain control of the colony’s day to day operation? A royal governor was responsible for the colony
7 How did the royal government differ from the trustees? The trustees believed the first Georgia settlers were not able to govern themselves, so they did not have the right to vote, hold elections etc… Under the first royal Governor, the colonists were encouraged to take part in the government.
8 Who was Georgia’s first royal governor? Georgia’s first royal governor was Governor John Reynolds.
9 What were the components of the first government under Reynolds? A BICAMERAL or two chamber legislature was set up to represent the eight parishes of the colony.
10 What was a parish?A parish was both a church and a British government district. The lower house of the legislature was called the Commons House of Assembly, while the upper house was called the Governor’s Council.
11 What were the colonists required to have to vote? In order to vote, a settler had to own at least 50 acres of land. Members of the Assembly had to own at least 500 acres of land.
12 What was the role of the Assembly? The assembly could write and vote on bills before they became laws.
13 Who were the members of the Governor’s Council? The Governor’s council was made up of members appointed by the king of England. These men were usually wealthy, influential landowners. They were to advise the governor, approve land grants, make laws and sometimes act as judges in legal cases.
14 What type of court system did Reynolds set up? Court of Conscience, over which presided a local justice of the peace. Cases that could not be settled in the court of Conscience went to the Governor’s Council.
15 What caused the French and Indian War? Greed and Fear – greed to capture the most territory and fear that one country would gain more power than another. The war was the result of territory disputes between Great Britain and France.
17 Using the map on page 143, list the territories controlled by Spain, Great Britain, and France. Spanish: Settlements in Florida and MexicoFrench: controlled Louisiana North to the Great Lakes plus Canada, British had the thirteen colonies along the Atlantic Coast.
18 How long did the war last? The French and Indian War begain in 1754 and lasted nine years.
19 What alliances/resources did each of the countries have? The British had the best navy but the French had a stronger army. Great Britain had a strong alliance with the six tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy but France had Western tribe trading partners. The French had more military leaders and less internal strife with the French colonists.
20 Why is it called the French and Indian War? The name refers to the two main enemies of the British: the royal French forces and the various American Indian forces allied with them. It is also called the seven years war.
21 What caused the rivalry to intensify? (see page 143) Both France and Britain claimed the area of the Ohio River Valley. British traders began trading with tribes that previously traded with the French. Virginia colonists also wanted to expand beyond the Allegheny Mountains into the Ohio Valley. France also claimed this area and continued to build forts there. Virginia Governor Dinwiddie sent George Washington to tell the French to stay out of the area – these demands were ignored.
22 TIMELINE: France and Britain claim Ohio Valley George Washington sent to inform French to leave area – Washington ignored –
23 What was Washington’s response to the French Washington returns with troops – sets up Fort Necessity – Washington’s men attack French at nearby camp – French attack Fort Necessity – Washington surrenders
25 What finally changed the tide of the war in favor of the British? William Pitt was put in charge of the war effort and used the British navy to capture key French Canadian cities of Quebec and Montreal. The Treaty of Paris in 1763 formally ended the war, with Britain emerging victorious.
26 What was Georgia’s role in the war? Georgia did not take place in the war, but was helped by the war – Georgia’s western boundary was set at the Mississippi and the southern boundary was moved to St. Mary’s .
28 How did Georgia’s boundaries change relative to Native Americans? The Creek and Cherokee gave up all land between the Ogeechee and Savannah rivers north to Augusta and all land south of the Altamaha. In exchange, Georgia colonists could not settle west of the Appalachians.
29 What were the results of the French and Indian War? British gain control of CanadaWestern frontier opened to Virginia colonistsGreat Britain gets Florida from Spain (Spain was an ally of France)France gives Louisiana territory to SpainFrance loses all land in N. AmericaGreat Britain has huge war debt.
30 How did the new boundaries help Georgia? Settlers began to migrate to the colony – water access provided key growth for shipping and good farmland/dense forests provided timber and naval store resources.
31 What was the Proclamation of 1763? The proclamation moved the state’s southern boundary to the St. Mary’s River AND forbade colonists to settle west of the Appalachian mountains.
32 Describe Georgia’s First Assembly The new Government met in 1755, in Savannah, the colony’s capital and largest city. Governor Reynolds still had the position of Royal Governor.
33 What changed in the government? Colonists and Governor Reynolds could not agree on the monetary amount to improve military defenses. Governor Reynolds disbanded the assembly and tried to run the colony himself. The colonists complained to the King that their right to self government was taken away.
34 How did Bryan County enter into the discussion? Reynolds wanted to move Savannah to the Ogeechee River, near Richmond Hill. The colonists did not want the location of the capital changed and support for Reynolds continued to decline.
35 Who was Georgia’s second Royal Governor? Captain Henry Ellis, a naturalist and scientist, became the second Royal Governor.
36 How did rule change under Ellis? Ellis was a popular governor – he allowed well known and wealthy citizens to lead the colony – he maintained favorable relations with South Carolina – he brought together people of many different political groups. He granted new comers large pieces of land and allowed them to bring their slaves.
37 What happened to Ellis?Ellis became ill and asked to return to Great Britain – he was, instead, reassigned to Nova Scotia as a royal governor. He never went to Nova Scotia, returning to London and working on policies governing the new world. He died at the age of 85 in Italy (1806)
38 Who was Georgia’s third Governor? The honorable James Wright became Governor of Georgia on October 11, He had been attorney General of South Carolina for twenty one years.
39 What did this Governor envision for Georgia? He believed that Georgia would continue to grow if large farms were even bigger, if trading expanded and if the western lands of the colony were opened to the settlers.
40 What type of defenses did Governor Wright develop? Wright completed the defenses around Savannah – Savannah was surrounded with palisades and the area forts were made stronger. Sunbury became the official port for ships. Both houses of the colonial assembly worked together to promote economic growth.
41 Where did the term “cracker” originate? Undesirable people who moved from Virginia and the Carolinas to settle in the middle and western part of Georgia.
42 What caused the discontent in the colonies? During the fifteen years before the American Revolution, many colonists began to tire of British rule and resent its policies. Britain had to pay off its war debt and had to pay soldiers to protect the colonies. To the British, it seemed only fair for the colonists to pay for this. As the British taxed the colonists, the colonists complained. As the colonists complained, Great Britain enacted old laws.
43 1765: Stamp Act – tax on newspapers, legal documents, licenses. What were the laws Britain passed that caused the colonists to complain?Navigation Acts – said colonies could only ship their goods on British vessels (not a problem for Georgia because most of its trade was still with Britain).1764 – increase tax on wine and imported goods – very little opposition in Georgia as parliament provided most of the money for Georgia’s government (older colonies angered about this as they were paying more).Sugar act – tax on sugar and molasses – problem with Georgia due to heavy trade of this with Jamaica and Barbados.1765: Stamp Act – tax on newspapers, legal documents, licenses.
44 Examine the cartoon on page 150. What do you think it means?
45 What resentment accompanied the Stamp Act? The reaction to the stamp act was swift and sometimes violent. A Stamp Act Congress met in Boston, MA to speak against British taxes. The Georgia colonial assembly was not in session, so Georgia did not send a representative. Georgia citizens did, however, burn an effigy of the stamp master in the streets of Savannah.
46 Who were the Liberty Boys? November 6th, group of Georgians came together to oppose the stamp act – they were called The Liberty Boys. They were part of a larger group, The Sons of Liberty.
47 Why were they called the Liberty Brawlers? Because they met in local taverns such as Tondee’s Tavern in Savannah.
48 How did Georgia react to the Townshend Acts of 1767? Members of the Georgia colonial assembly spoke against these acts, which placed import taxes on tea, paper, glass and coloring for paints.
49 Who was Noble Wimberly Jones? Noble Wimberly Jones (his father was original colonist surveyor Noble Jones, who helped Oglethorpe plan the city of Savannah) was elected as speaker of the assembly. Jones was an outspoken leader of the discontented Georgians.
51 How did Governor Wright react to this election? Governor Wright did away with the assembly out of fear that Jones’ defiance of the King would cause problems
52 How did the colonies respond to British taxes and how was Georgia different? Colonists boycotted tea, paint and other items taxed under Townshend Acts. Crispus Attucks was killed in Boston when soldiers fired into a crowd. Protest slogans such as “no taxation without representation” were commonplace. In Georgia, however, the colony was still relatively new and retained beneficial financial ties to Great Britain.
53 How did the Tea Act of 1773 worsen the situation? Parliament passed the Tea Act of 1773 which allowed the East India Company to ship tea directly to the colonies. It could then sell tea for less than the colonial merchants could. The colonists viewed it as a trick to get them to buy the tea and pay a lower tax. In December, Paul Revere, Samuel Adams and other Patriots dressed up as Mohawk Indians and dumped 342 chests of tea into Boston Bay – this action is remembered as the Boston Tea Party.
54 What are the Intolerable Acts? To punish the colonists of Massachusetts for the actions of the Patriots, parliament enacted four laws, which, because of their harshness, are called the INTOLERABLE ACTS. Boston’s ports were closed until Boston paid for the tea, Massachusetts colonists could not have a town meeting without the approval of their governor, the court system was changed so that any British official who committed a crime would be tried in Britain, and citizens of all colonies had to house and feed British soldiers at their own expense (the Quartering Act)
56 What happened as a result of the Intolerable Acts? Representatives of all the colonies except for Georgia gathered in Philadelphia to protest them. On September 5, 1774, the delegates organized the Continental Congress. At this point, there were groups wanting to break away and groups wanting to stay. The Continental Congress agreed to stop trade with Britain and urged each colony to set up committees of safety to enforce the boycott.Due to continued dependence on Britain, Georgia chose not to send a delegate to the continental congress. In August, 1774, a group of Georgians gathered to discuss the intolerable acts. They decided that the Intolerable Acts did not agree with the “rights and privileges of the Englishmen”.
57 How did Georgia react?Due to continued dependence on Britain, Georgia chose not to send a delegate to the continental congress. In August, 1774, a group of Georgians gathered to discuss the intolerable acts. They decided that the Intolerable Acts did not agree with the “rights and privileges of the Englishmen”.
58 What was the Provincial Congress The Provincial Congress was held in January 1775 in Savannah. Less than one half of Georgia’s parishes were represented -
60 What was Georgia’s reaction to the battles of Lexington and Concord? Georgia did not hear of the April 1775 battles until May. Tories were openly harassed (those who were loyal to the king of England, George III). No one paid attention to the Governor and guns were stolen from public warehouses.
61 When did Georgia arrive at the Second Continental Congress? Georgia arrived on May 13, 1775 and was represented by Lyman Hall. The other colonies were furious with Georgia because Georgia did not seem supportive.
62 When was the second Provincial Congress held? The Second Provincial Congress was held at Tondee’s Tavern in Savannah in July Four were chosen to go to Philadelphia – the delegates were given no other instructions than to vote as they felt best for the common good of all of Georgia.
63 Who from Georgia signed the Declaration of Independence? On August 2, 1776, the Second Continental Congress approved the declaration. It was signed by Lyman Hall, George Walton and Button Gwinnett. It was over a month before Georgians found out how their representatives had voted.
64 What political changes occurred in Georgia? Each state had to develop its own method of governance and pass laws that met its needs.
65 Parts of the Declaration Part 1 – Preamble – states colonist feeling about democracy and purpose for DeclarationPart 2 – list grievances against KingPart 3 – Declaration of Independence
66 What parties were involved in the changes? Whigs – more extreme group that wanted to give all the people of Georgia a chance to govern themselves. This included a unicameral or one house legislature – single legislative body with very broad powers including make appointments for the judicial branch. Whigs won and Georgia adopted its first state constitution with eight counties. Liberty County was named in honor of Liberty.
67 What revolutionary battles occurred in Georgia? During 1777 and 1778, Georgia’s Continental Army made several unsuccessful attempts to capture St. Augustine (now under British control). In December, 1778, British troops attacked and took control of Savannah. The poorly understaffed Georgia militia could do little to stop the British. Georgia was once again under military rule and Governor Wright returned to Georgia to take control of the government.
68 What was the Battle of Kettle Creek? In 1779, Georgia had a victory in defeating 800 British troops about eight miles from Washington, Georgia
69 What were the benefits of the Battle of Kettle Creek? The militia was able to take weapons and horses from the British soldiers and the spirit of the Georgia militia was lifted by the victory.
70 What was the Siege of Savannah? In September 1779, twenty two French ships and 4,000 soldiers arrived off Tybee Island. Joining about 15,000 Americans under General Benjamin Lincoln, the troops surrounded Savannah and tried to free it from British control through a SEIGE (try to prevent supplies from reaching enemy forces by capturing forts or town surrounding it).
71 Who was Casimir Pulaski? A Polish Count who was a foreign patriot. He was killed October 9th, when the combined French and American forces unsuccessfully attacked the British. During the 45 minute attack, over 1,000 men lay dead (821 of whom were French) compared to British losses of 40 men.
72 Who was Nancy Hart?The only county in Georgia named for a woman, Hartwell County is a tribute to the bravery of Georgia’s most famous war heroine. Twelve miles outside Elberton, Benjamin and Nancy Hart raised their eight children. Tories stopped by the house and insisted Nancy cook for them. Boasting of their killing of Hart’s neighbor, Colonel John Dooley, Nancy sent her children for help and disarmed the soldiers.
74 What led to the end of British occupation in Georgia? In June, 1781, Georgia’s militia was under the command of Colonel Clarke. Clarke took control of Augusta from the British.In the spring of 1782, British forces in Georgia believed they could not defeat the Americans and they left Savannah, ending the 3 ½ year occupation.
75 What signaled the end of the war? On October 1781, the Battle of Yorktown, Virginia resulted in the surrender of British General Lord Cornwallis. The Treaty of Paris, signed by Great Britain, France and the United States in September, 1783, gave the United States independence.
76 Who was Austin Dabney?Dabney was a freeborn child of mixed parentage. He arrived in Georgia with a man named Richard Aycock. Dabney took Aycock’s place in the military and was wounded at Kettle Creek. He saved the life of Elijah Clarke, by giving the colonel a horse after his horse had been shot out from under him.
77 What happened to Dabney after the war? Due to his mixed parentage, many did not want Dabney to receive land promised to those who served the military. Dabney eventually received his land and took the Harris family with him (the Harris family cared for him after he was wounded)