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Reform of the Poor Law Paper Two Intro Conclusion Tasty linked filling.

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1 Reform of the Poor Law Paper Two Intro Conclusion Tasty linked filling

2 Revision Session Why was the Poor Law Amendment Act introduced ? How did it work ?

3 The Old Poor Law Questions on this topic may ask you what the old system was like. Remember that the Old Poor Law was a mixture of different ways to treat the poor. The Old Poor Law lasts until 1834. It divided the poor into 2 groups; the Idle Poor were those who did not have a job but could work. The Impotent Poor were those who could not work and so needed help. Originally the Poor Law was set up to treat beggars and tramps and responsibility for this was given to each parish. The people who organised the Poor Law were called Overseers of the Poor and they were not paid. They collected money from ratepayers to look after the poor and this was called The Poor Rate.

4 How did parishes help the poor ? Some parishes built workhouses for the poor but many did not. In 1782 Gilbert`s Act said parishes could join together to build workhouses in order to reduce the cost. Most parishes tended to just give money to the paupers and this was called Outdoor Relief.

5 The Speenhamland System This was set up to help farm labourers by magistrates in Berkshire, in the south of England. These workers were the lowest paid in the whole country. Because Britain was at war with France, wheat could not be imported and so there was a shortage; prices of bread rose.

6 The Speenhamland System This system was adopted by about 20 counties in the south of England. It was designed to stop these workers starving to death and to prevent riots during this time of war. It gave workers money based on the price of bread and the size of their family. It was a bit like setting a minimum wage as the parish made up the wages of the labourers if they were not earning enough.

7 What were the results of this system ? It was supposed to be temporary but it lasted for almost 40 years. The money spent on the poor rose from about £1,500,000 a year in 1770 to £6,500,000 by 1813. It encouraged workers to be lazy because they knew their wages would be made up by the parish. It encouraged farmers to pay low wages because they knew the parish would make up the difference. People like Thomas Malthus criticised the system as he said it encouraged the poor to have large families in order to claim more money.

8 Context What was happening at the time that made things worse ? Can you explain these things and link them together ? The Industrial Revolution The increase in population Urbanisation The end of the French Wars (1815)

9 Questions – Top Tips ! You must read or look at the sources carefully. Many students lose marks because they just glance at or scan through the sources. Always read the sources with a pen in your hand. Underline the ‘key words’ in the sources. These are the words that the writer used to put over his message or point of view. The ‘key words’ will usually be adjectives or adverbs (words that end in ly) or may have very or most in front of them. If the source is a picture, underline or highlight the key parts of the picture. If it is a cartoon, highlight the parts at which the artist wanted people to look.

10 Questions – Top Tips ! In your answers, the key word is ‘suggest’. You should be trying to explain what the source is suggesting rather than just repeating the information in the source. Even if you put the information into your own words, you are still just repeating the information. It is a good idea to begin all answers with the words: ‘The source suggests that…’ or ‘The writer was suggesting that…’ This will mean that you always go beyond what the source is telling you. Remember that anything you tell the examiner must be backed up. There must be a ‘because’ in every paragraph.

11 Question (a) Have a look at this example: Read the source carefully You must also pick out the words that the writer used to put over his point of view. In this case, the key words are already highlighted. Then use those words to help you write an answer that explains what the writer was suggesting. Remember, ‘because’ and don’t copy !

12 Question (a) SOURCE A: From the annual report of the Poor Law Guardians of Highworth and Swindon (Wiltshire) 1837. The Board of Guardians is very satisfied with the working of the Poor Law Amendment Act. The savings to the ratepayers in this last twelve months is more than 54% compared with the average cost over the three years before the Act was passed. This saving has been made without harming the really deserving poor. The labouring poor have become more hardworking. This new law has brought a great moral improvement to this class of people. Answer: This source suggests that :-

13 Question (a) Now have a look at the exam paper for 2003; focus on question (a) and follow the Top Tips before writing an answer. When you begin an answer to Question (a), it is very important that you begin in the correct way. Start your answer with the words: Source A suggests that …. This will make you concentrate on points that are not actually mentioned in the Source and will stop you from simply retelling all the information from the Source.

14 Question (b) The second question on Paper 2, which will be (b), will always ask you to explain if sources support each other. It will begin like this: Do Sources B and C support Source A about …… ? Explain your answer. This means: Do Sources B and C agree with what Source A is saying?

15 Question (b) This has 6 marks, and to get 6 marks out of 6 you will need to explain how Sources B and C support the evidence of Source A. This means doing more than just stating that the sources are saying the same things. It also means spotting that the sources are suggesting the same things. For example, is the tone of the sources the same? Are both writers angry or pleased? In other words, Question (b) is just like question (a), but this time you have to use three sources.

16 Question (b) It does not matter if only one of Sources B and C supports Source A. Say that it only supports one of the other sources in your answer and explain the differences. If Source B and C only partly support Source A, say so. To do this question effectively, you must read the sources with a pen in your hand, but this time, you will need two pens of different colours.

17 Question (b) You have already read Source A, so start with Sources B and C underlining the key words. Now go back to Source A. Read them through and underline points of agreement and disagreement. Use one colour for agreement and another colour for disagreement as you go through the sources. Make sure you remember which colour is which. If you do this, you will be planning an answer as you read the sources.

18 Question (b) This question asks you to compare Sources B and C with Source A. So you must start with Sources B and C. If you do not, you may not get as many marks. Always check to which sources the question refers and begin with the first source that is mentioned. Remember: the formula is :- B – A C – A Overall Now try Question (b) from 2003.

19 Question (b) Mark Scheme Note that if you only mention 2 sources you cannot go above Level 1 (3 marks). To get 6 marks you need to say where the sources agree & where they disagree. To do this question well you should write 3 paragraphs.

20 Why was a New Poor Law Act suggested ? By 1832 many people were convinced that the Old Poor Law was not working. As usual, before passing an Act, the government decided to investigate the problem and so set up a Royal Commission in 1832. This spent 2 years visiting 3000 parishes and talking to Overseers, paupers and ratepayers. The most influential member of the Commission was Chadwick.

21 What were the Commission`s main findings ? The Old Poor Law was inefficient and cost too much money. There were too many different systems over the country. Speenhamland was considered to be wasteful and thought to encourage idleness. The people who ran the systems were generally untrained and unpaid and so did not do their jobs properly. Paupers were getting money without having to do any work.

22 What did the Commissioners suggest ? There should be only 1 system of Poor Relief for the whole country. Groups of parishes should join together to form Unions and each Union should build a workhouse. There should be no Outdoor Relief for those who were able-bodied and fit to work. They would have to go into a workhouse. Workhouses should be run on strict lines; conditions must be worse than those of the lowest paid worker. This was called the Workhouse Test.

23 The Poor Law Amendment Act All parishes were grouped into Unions & forced to build workhouses. Families were forced to enter these workhouses to get relief. To run the new system a Central Poor Law Commission was set up in London & Edwin Chadwick was the secretary. The Commission even issued designs for the new workhouses; they had to hold about 500 people and have separate areas or wards for men, women & children.They were supposed to have a schoolroom & an infirmary.

24 The Workhouses They were to be run by a master & a matron, supervised by the Board of Guardians. Families were to be kept separate and there were strict rules. Paupers had to wear a uniform. There was no smoking or drinking. Food was supposed to be basic with no luxuries. Children were to be educated and if possible apprenticed out to learn a trade. By 1839 350 new workhouses had been built.

25 Conditions in the Workhouses Some workhouses were badly run as the Boards of Guardians cut costs. Not all workhouses built schools. Much of the food was of very poor quality. In one, called Andover, inmates were found eating the gristle from the bones of horses. Orphan children were the worst treated of all.

26 Question (c) Utility questions Utility questions ask you to explain how useful sources are. This means how much you can learn from them. This is always question (c) and it will always refer to Sources D and E. Make sure that you are looking at the correct sources. This question is marked out of 8. Once again you can reach Level 2 by making inferences from the content of the sources. This will get 6 marks. However, if you want to reach Level 3 and gain 8 marks, you will have to refer to the Nature, Origin and Purpose of the sources.

27 Utility Questions Do`s and Don’ts in Question (c) Many students lose marks on these questions because they concentrate on telling the examiner what is wrong with the sources. But the question is asking you how useful the sources are and not how useless they are. There will not be any sources that are completely useless. So, do not fall into the trap of saying that a source is useless because the writer was lying, or because the information in the source is inaccurate or one-sided.

28 Utility Questions Sometimes students try to impress the examiner by saying that sources are primary or secondary or that they are biased or unreliable. But there are no marks for making statements like this unless you can explain how they help you to explain how the sources are useful. Always try to finish off by linking the two sources together and explaining how useful they are overall. Remember, all sources are useful!!!

29 Utility Questions Notice that your answer should start positively by explaining what the source suggests. Then you should explain the nature, origin and purpose (where relevant) and any possible limitations. This may be a negative section. But you must finish positively by explaining how the sources help you to understand the past. This is very important. Now look at question (c) from the exam paper.

30 Effects of the new Poor Law Many people believed it was a success as the costs went down. Some, like Robert Owen disliked it; others like Charles Dickens wrote a book about it. From 1837 the new system was introduced into the north of England and ran into trouble. Factories in the north often went into a slump and laid off workers at the same time; workhouses could not cope ! In 1842 the law was changed to allow outdoor relief as long as paupers worked for it.

31 Question (d) In Question (d), you must use your own knowledge in addition to the sources otherwise you will only be awarded a low level mark. The reason for this is that the mark scheme does not allow answers that only make use of the sources to go beyond Level 2. In fact, you can use own knowledge in answers to Questions (a), (b) and (c) and you may find that this helps improve your answers. Even if you do not actually refer to your own knowledge in your answers, you will probably be thinking about the background to the sources while you write.

32 Question (d) Own knowledge is anything that is not in the source. Own knowledge should be used to back up anything that is not explained in a source. If something is referred to in a source but not explained, it can be commented on using your own knowledge. The easiest way to use your own knowledge is to add to what is in the sources. Use the sources as a way of jogging your memory. This means looking through the sources and spotting names, dates and events that you can add to from your own knowledge. Context means the historical background. What was going on at the time? View means the point of view that was being suggested.

33 Question (d) What will Question (d) look like ? In Question (d) you will be asked to use the sources and own knowledge to explain whether you agree with a view. In other words, you are being asked if the explanation given in the statement is accurate. You have to explain whether you agree with the statement. It does not matter whether you agree or not. You can come to any conclusion but you must use the sources and own knowledge to support your answer. Examiners will highlight every time a source is mentioned and they will underline anything that is own knowledge. So you must refer to sources by name and try to use as much own knowledge as possible. Now look at the sources in question (d). Highlight which ones support the view and which ones do not.

34 Question (d) You may have noticed that in Questions (a) – (c) you covered Sources A-E but that you did not have to look at Source F at all. In Question (d), Source F becomes very important. You will need to look at this more carefully and take account of the nature, origin and purpose. The most important way of improving an answer is to make sure that you use your own knowledge. If you only use the sources, you cannot get higher than Level 2. If you can make good use of the sources and your own knowledge you will get Level 3.

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