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Using manorial and parochial records to trace Ag Lab ancestors

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1 Using manorial and parochial records to trace Ag Lab ancestors
Of This Parish Using manorial and parochial records to trace Ag Lab ancestors Difficulties of Ag Lab ancestors. What besides BMD? Number of possible sources Time constraints - focus on records of 2 basic administrative units - manor and parish

2 The Manorial System Feudal system land tenure
King – vassals – subtenants Land in return for services – goods - payment Administrative unit forming part of landed estate Came to be legally defined by holding a court

3 Manorial Records Manorial Court Rolls Court Leet Court Baron
Tenants and Rents Accounts Maps and Surveys Court Leet: running of manor – crimes - infringements Court Baron: customs of manor (byelaws) – landholding - settling disputes Range of records Latin up to 1731 Online Manorial Documents Register lists location of surviving records

4 Court Leet, Conisbrough, Yorkshire, 1605
Cuthbert Reyney 6d because he kept illicit sheep. Person Leadbetter 12d because he did not constrain six pigs. Widow Lewes 4d because she carried away a faggot of wood from the hedges. Roger Belgh 2s 6d because he held illegal games in his house at night. Thomas Whitehead de le Elme 12d because he held illegal games, namely globands. Matthew Sampson 6s 8d because he made an affray and drew blood from John Barley. John Hurst 3s 4d because he gave a box on the ear to Godfrey Roebuck, constable, in the execution of his office to keep the lord king's peace.

5 Manorial Records, Brinkworth, Wiltshire
1573. John Hedgs & Isabell his wife late the wife of Walter Reade deceased doe hold by indenture dated the firste daye of June in the 15th yeare of the raigne of the late Queene Elizabeth ... one parcell of vacant or voyd grounde in Brinckworth afforesayde containing by estimation halfe an acre ... duringe theire naturall lyves & the life of either of them longest lyvinge ... covenante on the lessees parte to erecte a dwellinge housse ... before the feaste of St Michaell next. 1616. Thomas Henley, Margery his wife, William his son dat 20th day of May Anno James yeares. All that cottage or tenement in Brinkworth late in the occupacon of John Hedges. 1625. Thomas Henly aged 40 yeres holdeth a cottage or tenement for the tearme of 99 yeres if hee Margery his wief aged 42: or William his sonne aged 8 yeres shall soe longe live: Rent 2s. Copyhold versus freehold Leases for three lives

6 Parish Administration
From 16th C parish took over from manor as principal admin unit JPs & Vestry (forerunner of parish council) shared responsibility Vestries open (all male ratepayers) or select (12 leading parishioners) 2 Churchwardens elected annually by minister & parishioners (or vestry) From 1572, 2 vestry members elected annually as Overseers of the Poor Other parish officers appointed: Constables, Surveyors of Highways Created many records (Tate, The Parish Chest) Survival & dates of records vary hugely from parish to parish Most not indexed – but see A2A Focus on most common & most useful for genealogy

7 Parochial records: Vestry Minutes
Church repairs Poor relief Charities Schools Dealt with whole range of parish responsibilities & duties of all parish officers Levied various rates on householders (except paupers) 18th century most amalgamated into Poor Rate Separate Church Rate for repairs Minutes recorded in vestry books Some survive from 16th century Many names of parishioners appear in minutes Lost powers during 19th century – transferred to Poor Law Unions, 1834, & Local Government (civil Parish Councils), 1894

8 Lampeter Vestry Minutes, 19 July 1779
At a Vestry held at the Parish Church of Lampeter and Adjourn'd to the House of William Davies this 19th Day of July 1779. We the Parishioners then Present have agreed to levy Taxes for the Making and repairing of the Road that leads by Cwmjago at 3½d per Pound. allow'd to the Widow of John Evan an Augmentation of 6d. per week commencing the 4th of July, 1779. allow'd Two flannel Shirts for Evan the Ideot Likewise allowd. to the Widow of James Rees Philip one Flannel Smock and one Pair of Shoes. Likewise allow'd to Thomas David William two Shillings in order to go to the sea side for the sake of his bad state of Health. Present: W. Williams, Clr, Oakley Leigh, James Morgan, David Davies, Chelton Leigh ". . . We the undersigned, being the officers of this parish who have met at the church to settle last month's accounts, having gone through part of the business do unanimously agree to adjourn this Vestry to the Bell, the inclemency of the weather making it hardly possible to transact the whole here . . ." (Vestry Minutes, Upminster, Essex, 4th February 1799, quoted in A History of Upminster and Cranham, by John Drury, 1986)

9 Parochial records: Churchwardens
Church rate Church upkeep Church ceremony Charities Vermin Compleat Parish Officer, published 1734 (reprinted 1996 Wilts FHS) handbook for parish officials. Funded by Church Rate – lists of those paying. More expense – more than one rate per year Church repairs - roof, bells etc – cleaning, supplies. With overseers, supervise education, charities, poor relief, care of sick. Much overlapping of records. Acts for Preservation of Grain 1532 & 1566 following v. bad harvests. Pay per head for different vermin presented to churchwardens. Rat, fox, crow, hedgehog, sparrow, polecat, otter. Implemented for several centuries. Repealed Roger Lovegrove: Silent Fields

10 Churchwardens' Accounts, Wirksworth, Derbyshire, 1658-1727
1662. Recd of Hellen Higgett for ye Buriall of her daughter Boame Robbinson in ye Church … 3s 4d. 1662. Pd Wm Dudson for himselfe & his sonne for poyntinge ye leads & church for 8 days. 1664. Given to Will Huchinsons wife when she lay in childbed & was in great want … 1s. 1667. Paid John Higgott for 38 hedghoggs … 6s 4d. 1715. Paid wid. Yeomans for sweeping the Church Sundry times … 4s. 1715. Paid John Wilde for carrying the great beams into the Church … 1s 6d. 1725. Martha Timperley for cleansing the Leads & church yard from stones & Rubbish … 2s 1725. Robert Blount for shoveling Snow from the Church Leads … 1s. 1721. For Crying abt Town for people to keep up their swine to Wm Taylor … 6d. 1721. Mr Yates for giveing People abt the Church Yard Notice to Remove their middens & stop their sinks … 2s 6d. 1717 & 18 – Mary Yeomans ditto Unskilled labour

11 The rise & fall of Henry Udall - 1
1694 Henry Udall paid 1d church rate 1695 Hen Udall paid 1½d church rate 1696 Ditto 1697 Henry Udall paid 2d church rate 1699 Henry Udall paid ½d church rate 1709 Ditto 1710 Paid for a Coate for Henry Udall 19s 1714 Henry Udall paid ¼d church rate 1715 Henry Udall a Coat £1 5s 1715 Paid Henry Udall for going to Buxton to Mr Haynes 2s 1721 Henry Udall a pair of shoes 3s 4d 1d or 1s in £. Amount assessed indication of relative wealth

12 The rise & fall of Henry Udall - 2
1721 Henry Udalle Cloath for a Coat & Capp with the makeing £1 11s 6d. 1722 Henry Udall a new pair of shoes & a pair soleing 4s 2d. 1722 Mr Stones Bill, & makeing Henry Udall's coat £1 11s. 1722 Pd Henry Udall 5s 1723 Pd for makeing Henry Udall's Coate 4s. 1723 Pd for Henry Udall's Shues 3s 6d. 1724 Henry Udall's Coat £1 4s 1½d 1724 Pd for Henry Udalls shoows 3s 6d 1724 Pd makeing H.Udalls Coat 4s 1725 Henry Udal's Coat makeing 4s 1725 Henry Udale a pair of shoes 3s 6d

13 Parochial records: Poor relief
Poor rate Overseers’ accounts Bastardy Parish apprenticeships Dissolution of monasteries - acute problem paupers & vagrants. System of poor relief dates from Elizabeth's reign. Appointed by Vestry & approved by JPs. No pay – onerous – fined if refused. Poor Rate in addition to Church Rate – lists of payers. Doling out relief - dilemma - balance compassion & cost Detailed annual accounts Bastards - finding father, so child not chargeable to parish Setting pauper children to work as parish apprentices

14 Overseers of the Poor, Little Wittenham, Berkshire
1719. Paid Elizabeth Webb for taking care of the woman found in the wood. 1s. 1719. Paid Goody Strange to see whether Elizabeth Webb was with child. 2s 6d. 1724. A bill to Mrs Moore Chrysurgeon nursing Goody Hills breast. £3 4s 6d 1727. Paid the widow Norket. 11 weeks for the use of her bed. 11s. 1732. Paid Ambrose Boler for making a boat for Eldridge's boy. 1s 6d 1745. Paid for wine for Willis. 1s. 1777. Pd Betty Wallis for nursing Dame Turrell for the smallpox. £1. 1782. Pd Swain extra in Winter. 6s. 1783. Pd Sarah Webb to have her child innoculated. 4s. 1787. Shoes and breeches for Swain's children. 2s 6d Meanwhile in Thornbury ... 1710. Pd. for a wooden legg for Wm. Gibbons, Oldbury. 2s.

15 Records of Bastardy 1770. Cam, Gloucs. Bond of James Longdon of Wotton-under-Edge for payment of maintenance of a bastard child by Mary Cuff of Cam. 1776. Kingston St Mary, Somerset. Order to constables to apprehend Malachi Male of South Petherton, father of bastard child of Mary Bishop of Kingston. 1788. Marshfield, Gloucs. Detailed letter from Edward Scott in Marlborough (Wilts), telling of how he was arrested in London as the putative father of a bastard child, by the overseers of Overton (Wilts) and detailing the various failed attempts to be released on bond. 1812. Olveston, Gloucs. Apprenticeship of William Bishop, bastard son of May, aged 11, to John Withers, cordwainer. 1835. Salisbury, Wilts. St Thomas parish. Examination of Elizabeth Coombs, widow. 4 bastard children born 1828, 1830, 1832 & born in St. Edmund parish, 4th at 4 Fishers Buildings, Palmers Village, parish of St Margaret, Westminster, London. Father Elijah Parsons, City, labourer. My Ancestor Was a Bastard. SOG

16 Parochial records: Settlement
Settlement examinations Settlement certificates Removal orders Settlement Acts 1662. Establish parish to which person belonged & therefore where chargeable to poor rates. Overseers to remove those JPs deemed likely to become dependent on poor relief.   1691. Qualifications for gaining settlement: - birth: legitimate - father’s parish, even if not where born; illegitimate - parish of birth; apprenticeship; work: hiring agreement of full year or more, each subsequent settlement replacing previous; marriage or remarriage: woman took husband’s place of settlement; renting property worth at least £10 a year; paying parish rates; election to parish office for a year. Led to detailed Settlement Examinations. Evidence carefully preserved. 1697. Paupers could move with a Settlement Certificate. Protected from removal unless applied for poor relief. Settlement certificate taken to new parish. Removal Orders two copies – one for each parish. Some families stayed put - parish of settlement agreed to maintain them. Shows up in Overseers Accounts.

17 Settlement Examinations, Devon
1779. North Molton. Jacob Langton, weaver, now resident in N Molton - born in Uffculme - age 20, he married on leaving home - later rented a house in Uffculme - has since purchased a house in N Molton on a lease for 3 lives (one life remaining) - is married to Grace and they have 3 children, James (13), Philip (5) and Elizabeth (9 months). 1779. Winkleigh. Richard Taylor senior, woolcomber - served as apprentice with John Dunnam, sergemaker, of Holcombe Rogus for 9 years - at 19 years old, enlisted in the Marines - discharged in Plymouth in married while in the Marines & has 6 sons, the youngest of whom is c.10 years old. 1782. Winkleigh. John Saddler, a Private Man in the Oxfordshire Militia, now quartered in Exeter - his father was a Private in the Welch Fusiliers and on discharge was removed to Berks, where John was born [father was a shoemaker in Farringdon] - served various people in Farringdon [married Susanna Gould at Exeter St Thomas on 6 April].


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