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LINGUISTICS: TIMELINE, GRAMMAR, SEMANTICS, AND PRAGMATICS 语言学:历史线条、语法、语义与语用 Shaozhong Liu, Ph.D. (Pragmatics) / Ph.D. (Higher Education) College of Foreign.

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Presentation on theme: "LINGUISTICS: TIMELINE, GRAMMAR, SEMANTICS, AND PRAGMATICS 语言学:历史线条、语法、语义与语用 Shaozhong Liu, Ph.D. (Pragmatics) / Ph.D. (Higher Education) College of Foreign."— Presentation transcript:

1 LINGUISTICS: TIMELINE, GRAMMAR, SEMANTICS, AND PRAGMATICS 语言学:历史线条、语法、语义与语用 Shaozhong Liu, Ph.D. (Pragmatics) / Ph.D. (Higher Education) College of Foreign Studies, Guilin University of Electronic Technology Homepage: Blog: Email: 3/7/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013 1

2 Teaching Plan Objectives 1) To prepare students with background knowledge 2) To discuss the place of pragmatics in linguistics 3) To distinguish the key terms and concepts Content 1) Definition of language 2) Definition of linguistics 3) Scope of linguistics 4) Progression of linguistics in timeline 5) Division of work between grammar, semantics, and pragmatics 3/7/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013 2

3 Teaching Plan (cont’) Strategies 1) Lecture 2) Video-clip watching 3) Interactions 4) Comparison 5) Exemplification 6) Definition 7) Reading 8) Take-home assignment 3/7/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013 3

4 Defining Language “Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols for human communication.” Language = human language; not animal language System = wholeness Arbitrary = no logical linkage between word and the object it refers to Vocal = sound to be pronounced and heard Symbols = highly abstract; sign not suggestive of meaning Human communication = exclusive of animal communication 3/7/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013 4

5 Defining Linguistics “Linguistics is a scientific study of language.” -tics -ist (linguist = one that professes at language study) Scientific = resort to declarative and procedural means Study = exploratory and inquisitive in nature Language = mainly human language / form and meaning; structure and function 3/7/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013 5

6 Scope of Linguistics 3/7/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013 6

7 3/7/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013 7

8 Scope of Linguistics (cont’) Phonetics = the branch of linguistics that studies the physical properties of speech production and perception Phonology = the branch of linguistics that studies sounds as discrete, abstract elements or patterns that disitnguish meaning. Morphology = the branch of linguistics that studies word formations Lexicology = the branch of linguistics that studies words Grammar = the branch of linguistics that studies the structures and rule of words Syntax = the branch of linguistics that studies relationship of words to make up grammatical sentences 3/7/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013 8

9 Semantics = the branch of linguistics that studies ideal speaker’s / context-free meanings of words and sentences. Stylistics = the branch of linguistics that studies language use features relative to people, context, etc. Pragmatics = the branch of linguistics that studies context-dependent / actual speaker’s meanings of words and utterances. Discourse = the branch of linguistics that studies structures and functions of texts … 3/7/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013 9

10 Progression of Linguistics Linguists were bothered by 3 questions over history: 1) Where does language come from? Plato first raised this question, hence Plato or Platonic question. *No ending! 2) What is the relationship between form and meaning? (lightening = natural = the Stoics; wedding ceremony = manmade = Plato’s student Aristotle) * Should be both! 3) What makes up a sentence? / What are the elements of a sentence? (Study language within the framework of logic; Plato assumes 2 basic elements in a sentence: a subject and a verb, the latter coming after the former. Aristotle looks into the parts of speech (nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, static words, linking devices, and prepositions), the core of traditional grammar! 3/7/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013 10

11 Along the line, there appeared several themes in enquiry: 1) Traditional grammar 2) Historical linguistics 3) Structuralism 4) Transformational grammar 5) Functional grammar 3/7/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013 11

12 Division of Work: Grammar, Semantics, Pragmatics Leech (1983), etc. 3/7/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013 12

13 Grammar quotes A philosopher once said, 'Half of good philosophy is good grammar.' A. P. MartinichA. P. Martinich Arguments over grammar and style are often as fierce as those over IBM versus Mac, and as fruitless as Coke versus Pepsi and boxers versus briefs. Jack LynchJack Lynch At age 11 in 1960, I moved to an academic state secondary school, Harrow County Grammar School for Boys. Paul NursePaul Nurse Be able to correctly pronounce the words you would like to speak and have excellent spoken grammar. Marilyn vos SavantMarilyn vos Savant Grammar is a piano I play by ear. All I know about grammar is its power. Joan DidionJoan Didion 3/7/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013 13

14 Grammar is the logic of speech, even as logic is the grammar of reason. Richard Chenevix TrenchRichard Chenevix Trench Grammar schools are public schools without the sodomy. Tony Parsons Tony Parsons Grammar, which knows how to control even kings. Moliere Moliere Greek was very much a live language, and a language still unconscious of grammar, not, like ours, dominated by definitions and trained upon dictionaries. Gilbert MurrayGilbert Murray 3/7/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013 14

15 Henceforth, language studies were no longer directed merely towards correcting grammar. Ferdinand de SaussureFerdinand de Saussure His eyes so dim, so wasted each limb, that, heedless of grammar, they all cried, that's him! Richard Harris BarhamRichard Harris Barham I am the Roman Emperor, and am above grammar. Emperor Sigismund Emperor Sigismund I demand that my books be judged with utmost severity, by knowledgeable people who know the rules of grammar and of logic, and who will seek beneath the footsteps of my commas the lice of my thought in the head of my style. Louis Aragon Louis Aragon 3/7/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013 15

16 I don't know the rules of grammar... If you're trying to persuade people to do something, or buy something, it seems to me you should use their language, the language they use every day, the language in which they think. We try to write in the vernacular. David OgilvyDavid Ogilvy I never made a mistake in grammar but one in my life and as soon as I done it I seen it. Carl SandburgCarl Sandburg I remember a moment when the Prince went back to his old school, Grammar School in Melbourne, and slightly to his horror his old music teacher produced a cello. Anthony Holden Anthony Holden I studied at a grammar school and later at the University of Vienna in the Faculty of Medicine. Karl von FrischKarl von Frisch 3/7/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013 16

17 I used to go with him and I'd sometimes play, take over from him. That was my first taste of the music business, I suppose, but I was also in the youth orchestra at Johnston Grammar. Trevor Horn I was raised in Hollywood and knew, from as early as grammar school, classmates who were in the business. Mike FarrellTrevor Horn Mike Farrell I went to the local schools, the local state primary school, and then to the local grammar school. A secondary school, which technically was an independent school, it was not part of the state educational system. John HumeJohn Hume 3/7/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013 17

18 In general, the philological movement opened up countless sources relevant to linguistic issues, treating them in quite a different spirit from traditional grammar; for instance, the study of inscriptions and their language. But not yet in the spirit of linguistics. Ferdinand de Saussure Ferdinand de Saussure It's like learning a language; you can't speak a language fluently until you find out who you are in that language, and that has as much to do with your body as it does with vocabulary and grammar. Fred FrithFred Frith It's really difficult for me. Language, I am sorry that I haven't. I think I just always expected that you learn a word in place of a word and when I discovered how difficult the grammar was and learning that was very discouraging for me. Bo DerekBo Derek 3/7/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013 18

19 Let schoolmasters puzzle their brain, With grammar, and nonsense, and learning, Good liquor, I stoutly maintain, Gives genius a better discerning. Oliver GoldsmithOliver Goldsmith Like everything metaphysical the harmony between thought and reality is to be found in the grammar of the language. Ludwig WittgensteinLudwig Wittgenstein Social criticism begins with grammar and the re- establishing of meanings. Octavio PazOctavio Paz Statistics is the grammar of science. Karl PearsonKarl Pearson The first of these phases is that of grammar, invented by the Greeks and carried on unchanged by the French. It never had any philosophical view of a language as such. Ferdinand de Saussure Ferdinand de Saussure 3/7/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013 19

20 Then when I was in grammar school I played the clarinet, and then, after clarinet I played the flute in college orchestra - besides singing in the college chorus and things like that. Bobby McFerrin Bobby McFerrin This African American Vernacular English shares most of its grammar and vocabulary with other dialects of English. But it is distinct in many ways, and it is more different from standard English than any other dialect spoken in continental North America. William LabovWilliam Labov What that book does for me is give me the tools in the same way that I had the tools when I learned the regular scales or the alphabet. If you give me the tools, the syntax, and the grammar, it still doesn't tell me how to write Ulysses. David Baker David Baker 3/7/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013 20

21 When a thought takes one's breath away, a grammar lesson seems an impertinence. Thomas W. HigginsonThomas W. Higginson Writing is an act of faith, not a trick of grammar. E. B. White E. B. White You see so many movies... the younger people who are coming from MTV or who are coming from commercials and there's no sense of film grammar. There's no real sense of how to tell a story visually. It's just cut, cut, cut, cut, cut, you know, which is pretty easy. Peter Bogdanovich Peter Bogdanovich 3/7/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013 21

22 Semantics quotes All our work, our whole life is a matter of semantics, because words are the tools with which we work, the material out of which laws are made, out of which the Constitution was written. Everything depends on our understanding of them. Felix FrankfurterFelix Frankfurter I think that, on the reconciliation issue, if they had the votes, we wouldn't have had the summit. And if they try to go through reconciliation, it will be a change in semantics. Instead of the American people saying 'stop the bill' or 'kill the bill,' it's all going to be about repealing the bill. That's not the kind of discussion that they want. Marsha Blackburn Marsha Blackburn 3/7/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013 22

23 If we're for one another, we're feminists. The rest is semantics. Betty BuckleyBetty Buckley Semantics, or the study of meaning, remained undeveloped, while phonetics made rapid progress and even came to occupy the central place in the scientific study of language. Roman JakobsonRoman Jakobson Uncritical semantics is the myth of a museum in which the exhibits are meanings and the words are labels. To switch languages is to change the labels. Willard Van Orman QuineWillard Van Orman Quine When someone writes to tell me something I've written made them laugh or cry, I've done my job and done it well. The rest is all semantics. Len WeinLen Wein 3/7/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013 23

24 Pragmatic quotes Dream in a pragmatic way. Aldous HuxleyAldous Huxley For pragmatic reasons, I love the routine. I love the structure of it. I love knowing that my days are free. I know where I'm going at night. I know my life is kind of orderly. I just like that better. Andrea Martin Andrea Martin I am a very pragmatic person. Gloria SwansonGloria Swanson I don't have this fantasy about marriage anymore. Everyone says it takes hard work. Well, it kind of does - and I'm much more pragmatic about romance than I used to be. Jennifer GarnerJennifer Garner 3/7/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013 24

25 I grew up with Scientology - my parents at one point were clerical. It's a pragmatic philosophy, not merely a belief system. Yeah, it's had media exposure because certain luminaries do Scientology, but millions of people do it who are not celebrities. It's not a threat or some cult. Giovanni RibisiGiovanni Ribisi I'm generally a very pragmatic person: that which works, works. Linus TorvaldsLinus Torvalds I'm not asking any of you to make drastic changes to every single one of your recipes or to totally change the way you do business. But what I am asking is that you consider reformulating your menu in pragmatic and incremental ways to create healthier versions of the foods that we all love. Michelle ObamaMichelle Obama 3/7/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013 25

26 I'm optimistic because I'm pragmatic: Neither of the two sides, the military government nor the Islamic front, is capable of winning. If they continue to fight, they will both bleed to death. Ahmed Ben BellaAhmed Ben Bella In any architecture, there is an equity between the pragmatic function and the symbolic function. Michael GravesMichael Graves Keeping small nations enslaved because of the deals between the great nations or because of any pragmatic considerations that might have been there are totally unacceptable. Mikhail SaakashviliMikhail Saakashvili 3/7/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013 26

27 The purpose of this study is to offer a logical, practical, pragmatic proof of the existence of God from a purely scientific perspective. John ClaytonJohn Clayton We need a government that is what we are at our best. Smart, efficient, pragmatic and compassionate. Deval PatrickDeval Patrick 3/7/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013 27

28 What is pragmatics? “We human beings are odd compared with our nearest animal relatives. Unlike them, we can say what we want, when we want. All normal humans can produce and understand any number of new words and sentences. Humans use the multiple options of language often without thinking. But blindly, they sometimes fall into its traps. They are like spiders who exploit their webs, but themselves get caught in the sticky strands.” Jean Aitchison 3/7/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013 28

29 “Pragmatics studies the factors that govern our choice of language in social interaction and the effects of our choice on others.” David Crystal 3/7/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013 29

30 “Pragmatics is all about the meanings between the lexis and the grammar and the phonology...Meanings are implied and the rules being followed are unspoken, unwritten ones.” George Keith 3/7/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013 30

31 “Pragmatics is a way of investigating how sense can be made of certain texts even when, from a semantic viewpoint, the text seems to be either incomplete or to have a different meaning to what is really intended. Consider a sign seen in a children's wear shop window: “Baby Sale - lots of bargains”. We know without asking that there are no babies are for sale - that what is for sale are items used for babies. Pragmatics allows us to investigate how this “meaning beyond the words” can be understood without ambiguity. The extra meaning is there, not because of the semantic aspects of the words themselves, but because we share certain contextual knowledge with the writer or speaker of the text.” Steve Campsall 3/7/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013 31

32 “Pragmatics is an important area of study for your course. A simplified way of thinking about pragmatics is to recognise, for example, that language needs to be kept interesting - a speaker or writer does not want to bore a listener or reader, for example, by being over-long or tedious. So, humans strive to find linguistic means to make a text, perhaps, shorter, more interesting, more relevant, more purposeful or more personal. Pragmatics allows this. ” Steve Campsall 3/7/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013 32

33 Pragmatics is a systematic way of explaining language use in context. It seeks to explain aspects of meaning which cannot be found in the plain sense of words or structures, as explained by semantics. As a field of language study, pragmatics is fairly new. Its origins lie in philosophy of language and the American philosophical school of pragmatism. As a discipline within language science, its roots lie in the work of (Herbert) Paul Grice on conversational implicature and the cooperative principle, and on the work of Stephen Levinson, Penelope Brown and Geoff Leech on politeness. We can illustrate how pragmatics works by an example from association football (and other field sports). It sometimes happens that a team-mate will shout at me: “Man on!” Semantic analysis can only go so far with this phrase. 3/7/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013 33

34 For example, it can elicit different lexical meanings of the noun “man” (mankind or the human race, an individual person, a male person specifically) and the preposition “on” (on top of, above, or other relationships as in “on fire”, “on heat”, “on duty”, “on the fiddle” or “on the telly”). And it can also explain structural meaning, and account for the way this phrase works in longer sequences such as the “first man on the moon”, “a man on the run” or “the man on top of the Clapham omnibus”. 3/7/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013 34

35 None of this explains the meaning in the context of the football game. This is very complex, but perhaps includes at least the following elements: My team-mate has seen another player's movement, and thinks that I have either not seen it, or have not responded to it appropriately. My team-mate wants me to know that I am likely to be tackled or impeded in some way. My team-mate wants me to respond appropriately, as by shielding the ball, passing it to an unmarked player, laying it off for another team-mate and so on. 3/7/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013 35

36 My team-mate has an immediate concern for me, but this is really subordinated to a more far-sighted desire for me, as a player on his team, to protect the ball or retain possession, as this will make our team more likely to gain an advantage. My team-mate understands that my opponent will also hear the warning, but thinks that his hearing it will not harm our team's chances as much as my not being aware of the approaching player. My team-mate foresees that I may rebuke him (and the other players on our team collectively) if no-one, from a better vantage point, alerts me to the danger. 3/7/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013 36

37 If this (or even part of it) is right, it is clear that my team- mate could not, in the time available, (that is, before the opponent tackles me) communicate this information in the explicit manner above. But it also relies on my knowing the methods of language interchange in football. “Man on” is an established form of warning. For all I know, professional players may have their own covert forms, as when they signal a routine at a free kick, corner or throw- in, by calling a number or other code word. 3/7/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013 37

38 Also, though my team-mate is giving me information, in the context of the game, he is chiefly concerned about my taking the right action. If response to the alert becomes like a conditioned reflex (I hear the warning and at once lay the ball off or pass), then my contribution to the team effort will be improved. (Reflection on how I play the game is fine after the match, but not helpful at moments when I have to take action.) Note also, that though I have assumed this to be in a game played by men, the phrase “Man on” is used equally in mixed-gender and women's sports - I have heard it frequently in games of field hockey, where the “Man” about to be “on” was a female player. “Woman on” would be inefficient (extra syllable and a difficult initial “w” sound), and might even lead the uncritical player to worry less about the approaching tackle - though probably not more than once. 3/7/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013 38

39 We use language all the time to make things happen. We ask someone to pass the salt or marry us - not, usually at the same time. We order a pizza or make a dental appointment. Speech acts include asking for a glass of beer, promising to drink the beer, threatening to drink more beer, ordering someone else to drink some beer, and so on. Some special people can do extraordinary things with words, like baptizing a baby, declaring war, awarding a penalty kick to Arsenal FC or sentencing a convict. Linguists have called these things “speech acts” - and developed a theory (called, unsurprisingly, “speech act theory”) to explain how they work. Some of this is rooted in common sense and stating the obvious - as with felicity conditions. These explain that merely saying the words does not accomplish the act. Judges (unless they are also referees) cannot award penalty kicks to Arsenal, and football referees (unless they are also heads of state) cannot declare war.felicity conditions 3/7/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013 39

40 Speech act theory is not the whole of pragmatics, but is perhaps currently the most important established part of the subject. Contemporary debate in pragmatics often focuses on its relations with semantics. Since semantics is the study of meaning in language, why add a new field of study to look at meaning from a novel viewpoint? This is an elementary confusion. Clearly linguists could develop a model of semantics that included pragmatics. Or they could produce a model for each, which allows for some exploration and explanation of the boundary between them - but distinguishes them as in some way different kinds of activity. However, there is a consensus view that pragmatics as a separate study is necessary because it explains meanings that semantics overlooks. 3/7/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013 40

41 3/7/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013 41

42 你懂的 (啊)! 3/7/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013 42

43 The Semantics-Pragmatics Distinction In early work, the semantics-pragmatics distinction was often seen as coextensive with the distinction between truth-conditional and non-truth-conditional meaning (Gazdar 1979). On this approach, pragmatics would deal with a range of disparate phenomena, including (a) Gricean conversational inference, (b) the inferential recognition of illocutionary-force, and (c) the conventional meanings of illocutionary-force indicators and other non- truth-conditional expressions such as but, please, unfortunately (Recanati 1987). From the cognitive point of view, these phenomena have little in common. 3/7/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013 43

44 Within the cognitive science literature in particular, the semantics-pragmatics distinction is now more generally seen as coextensive with the distinction between decoding and inference (or conventional and conversational meaning). On this approach, all conventional meaning, both truth-conditional and non- truth-conditional, is left to linguistic semantics, and the aim of pragmatic theory is to explain how the gap between sentence meaning and utterance interpretation is inferentially bridged. A pragmatic theory of this type is developed in D. Sperber and D. Wilson (1986). 3/7/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013 44

45 summary Grammar vs. pragmatics 1) Grammar = rules + correctness 2) Pragmatics = principles + appropriateness Semantics vs. pragmatics 1) Semantics = ideal speaker / context free meaning 2) Pragmatics = meaning – semantics (i.e. meanings that semantics does not cover) 3/7/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013 45

46 Extended Readings Outline of linguistics ( Berkeley Linguistics 1( What is linguistics ( After-class reading “What is pragmatics?” (Peccei, 1999) 3/7/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013 46

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