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Nutrient Management Subtitle. Burning Issues Nutrient Management2.

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Presentation on theme: "Nutrient Management Subtitle. Burning Issues Nutrient Management2."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nutrient Management Subtitle

2 Burning Issues Nutrient Management2

3 Contents Nutrient Budgets Sustainable Dairy Accord Nutrient Cycling and Balance Nitrogen and Phosphorous Cycling Farm Practices that affects cycles Impact of Farm base resources on cycles Soil type Topography Climate Nutrient Losses and Gains Opportunities in the Farm system N and P efficiency N loss/kgMS, N loss/ha, N outputs/N Inputs% Farm and regional metrics Individual and group work Summary Nutrient Management3

4 Nutrient Cycle A Nutrient cycle is the movement and exchange of organic and inorganic matter back in the production of living matter. The minerals and nutrients in the soil are recycled back in the production of crops. Nutrient Management4


6 What is a Nutrient Budget? It is a decision support tool that should be used in conjunction with 1.Regular Soil Herbage tests 2.A consultant trained in Interpreting results 3.And regular Information Updates Nutrient Management6

7 Nutrient Budget Vs. Financial Budget A financial budget deals with income and expenditure. A financial budget helps to run and improve your business. One must act on the information - if your business is losing money, doing a budget by itself will not fix anything. It may highlight areas of concern and suggest what action may be needed. * The accuracy of both methods is only as much as the data feeded Nutrient Management7 A nutrient budget deals with outputs and Inputs. A nutrient budget helps to run and improve your business. One must act on the information - if your business is losing nutrients, doing a budget by itself will not fix anything. It may highlight areas of concern and suggest what action may be needed.

8 Why do a Nutrient Budget? Assess the inputs and the fate of nutrients on farms. Account for the nutrients in supplements and effluents. Define any potential environmental impact due to nutrient use. Assess the nutrient use efficiency. Provide a proof of a clean and green farming system. Meet statutory or suppy requirement. Nutrient Management8

9 Over seer Nutrient Budget KEY ASPECTS Inputs Fertiliser and Effluent nutrient loading especially N, P, and K Supplementary Nutrient Inputs N Leaching Nutrient Management9

10 Nutrient Budget what does it look like Nutrient Management10

11 Nutrient Inputs and Output Nutrient Management11

12 Nutrient Inputs and Outputs Nutrient Management12 Nutrient inputsNutrient ouputs Fertiliser and Lime: N, P, K, Mg, Ca and Na added as fertiliser or lime. It is assumed these are applied using best practise. Product: Nutrients contained in milk and meat. Nutrient added from effluent: Applying effluent to land by spray is an efficient method of re-utilising nutrients from farm dairy, and can substitute for fertiliser. Problems may arise when fertiliser is applied in addition to effluent, if no account has been taken of the nutrients in the effluent, or when the effluent block is too small. Net transfer by animals: Nutrients can be transferred from one spatial location to another. On dairy farms the transfer of nutrients occurs from the grazed paddock to the race and farm dairy, and then to the effluent system (pond or land applied). On sheep farms, large transfer of nutrients occurs from steep slopes to stock camps. The importance of these transfers to the overall nutrient budget depends on the spatial scale. On a paddock or block scale, the main transfer is from the block to the dairy effluent or lanes. On a farm scale, transfers are to non- productive areas, namely the effluent pond and lanes. Depending on the construction and location of lane ways, this could represent a significant source of nutrients that can have an environmental impact, for example, if lanes drain into waterways. Atmospheric/clover N: N fixation by clover. The model accounts for decreased N fixation as fertiliser N inputs increase and as clover levels decrease also small amounts of N, K and S in rainfall Atmospheric: Gaseous loss of N due to ammonia volatilisation (from N fertiliser, dung, urine and effluent), and DE-nitrification. (In poor draining soils and high rainfall areas).

13 Nutrient Inputs and Outputs - Continued Nutrient inputsNutrient ouputs Nutrient Management13 Atmospheric/clover N: N fixation by clover. The model accounts for decreased N fixation as fertiliser N inputs increase and as clover levels decrease also small amounts of N, K and S in rainfall Atmospheric: Gaseous loss of N due to ammonia volatilisation (from N fertiliser, dung, urine and effluent), and DE-nitrification. (In poor draining soils and high rainfall areas). Irrigation: Nutrients contained in irrigation water Leaching/Runoff: Nutrients moved by drainage below the plant root system. N is leached down through the soil in drainage water and can affect drinking water quality. N Leached to groundwater can move laterally and enter surface waters where it can increase algae and plant growth. P loss to waters is largely by surface runoff and although amounts are relatively small (typically 0.3 to 1.7 kg P/ha/yr.) it can be significant for increasing algal and plant growth in waterways. The environmental significance of N and P loss to waters varies with different water bodies and should be interpreted using Regional Council Plans. In pastoral soils, much of the leaching of N can be directly related to the high N concentrations in urine spots. Thus, reduction of N inputs may not give proportionate reductions in N leaching. Supplements imported: Feed brought in from outside the farm or from another farm block. Itfg also includes Mg, Ca and Na added via drenching, dusting or added to feed.o Supplements sold: Hay and silage sold or fed out on another farm block.


15 Key Areas covered by the Accord Riparian management – excluding dairy cattle from significant waterways and drains and significant wetlands within a phased timeframe; development of riparian planting plans. Nutrient management – improving management of N and P loss from dairy farming systems through an industry-wide monitoring and support system. Effluent management – compliance with regional council effluent rules and continued investment in fit for purpose systems. Water use management - improving water use efficiency in irrigation systems and around the cowshed. Conversions – Good practice standards for all new dairy farms. Nutrient Management15 The Dairy Industry is committing to key timeframes including. Dairy Cattle excluded from waterways: 90% by 31 May 2014; 100% by 31 st May 2017.

16 Sustainable Dairy Record Responsibilities For the 2013/2014 season the Sustainable Dairying: Water Accord will be taking over from the Clean Streams Accord in water regulation standards of the dairy industry. This commitment is to be met by all dairy farmers no matter who they supply or where they farm, including irrigation and fertiliser sectors. Outcome will result in improved efficiency of water and nutrient use on farms. Nutrient Management16

17 IMPACT OF FARM BASED RESOURCES ON CYCLING Nutrient Management17 Overview of Key Nutrients

18 Law of the Minimum Nutrient Management18

19 Nutrient Cycling and Balance – Key Nutrients MAJOR ELEMENTS Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K) and Sulpher(S) are the most likely to limit plant growth. N and P are the main nutrients in relation to the environment. Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) are important for animal health. Nutrient Management19

20 Nitrogen Cycle Nutrient Management20

21 Soil Reactions Nutrient Management21

22 Nitrogen Flow on Grazed Land Nutrient Management22 Pasture / Crops Leaching (Nitrate) De-nitrification (Nitrousoxide) Volatilisation ( Ammonia) Farm Gate N Surplus Milk Protein - N Dairy Effluent Collection Areas Soil Cows Clover N Fixation N Fertiliser

23 Phosphorous Function in plant Required for energy transfer and photosynthesis. Involved in nutrient movement in the plant. Plays a major role in genetic development. Maintenance= 0.6 kg P per 1 kgMS. Nutrient Management23 Function on Farm Found in Superphospate, RPR, DAP. Most deficient in underdeveloped soils. Measured by Olsen P test. P is largely immobile, it is chemically bound to soil particles. Soil loss = P loss Erosion of soil takes P with it. Optimum soil level, 30 on ash, 35-45 on peat and pumice soils.

24 Phosphorous (P) in Nutrient Budget Nutrient Management24

25 P Cycle Nutrient Management25

26 SITE MANAGEMENT FACTORSTRANSPORT FACTORS Soil P LevelsRun Off P application practices including time, rate and method of application Erosion from rainfall, snowmelt and irrigation events Field management practices such as tillage practices and use of cover crops Surface and subsurface drainage Percolation and underground movement of P to seepage areas Distance of P source to concentrated waterflow or water body Atmospheric Deposition Nutrient Management26

27 N and P movement in Soil Nutrient Management27 P in Soil N in Soil


29 Nutrient Management29 SOIL TYPES

30 Soil – Not just ordinary dirt Nutrient Management30 Physical Properties BiologyChemistry

31 Every farm is different - It starts with the soil Nutrient Management31 Depending on the soil type, the nutrient requirements will be different. E.g. the Pumice soils of Bay of Plenty will have a base nutrient status compared to the Sedimentary soils of the South Island. It is essential to get an individual soil test to make sure there are no deficiencies in the soil or excess nutrients are being brought into the farm system. The soil test will show if there is a need for lime, from pH, Olsen P, and other nutrients essential to optimum plant growth. Rainfall and the seasonal variation will also contribute to differences across the country in nutrient requirements

32 Nutrient Management32 TOPOGRAPHY

33 Nutrient Management33 NITROGEN LEACHING

34 WHAT IS THE N LEACHED IN YOUR FARM? Nutrient Management34

35 HOT ISSUES - Nitrate Urine Patch not fertiliser Urine Patch equivalent to 700- 1000 Kg N ha-1 Nutrient Management35




39 Calculate your NCE for your farm Nutrient Management39 N output in product/ total N inputs = N efficiency (87 / 149+107+346+21) x 100 = 14% in the example Factors affecting the N efficiency in the above example could be:­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ N efficiency for your farm:__________________________ N output in product/ total N inputs = N efficiency ____________/___________ = _____________________________________________%

40 Use this graph to bench mark your farm Nutrient Management40

41 Factors affecting NCE in my farm could be _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ Nutrient Management41

42 NCE – WAIKATO REGIONAL METRICS Nutrient Management42

43 Regional Metrics - Cantebury Nutrient Management43

44 Nutrient Management44 WHAT CAN YOU DO?

45 To improve NCE Increase per cow production to achieve same MS target with lower stocking rate. Reduce N fertiliser inputs whilst maintaining SR and Milk production. Lower N use in winter, when pasture growth response is low. Increase effluent area to lower N application rate from effluent. Nutrient Management45

46 Nutrient Management46 N application is a good practice.

47 Nitrogen inputs N Fixation Legumes fix N from the atmosphere via a symbiotic relationship with bacteria (rhizobia) which live in the nodules of the plant root. N in dung and Urine 60% to 90 % of N consumed by the cow is excreted in the form of dung and urine. Urine has high concentrations of N in the form of ammonia/urea. When deposited in Urine patch the N loadings are too high for the plant to utilise. Nutrient Management47

48 Nutrient Management48 Pasture Growth Rate Pasture GR (kgDM/ha/d) N Response (kgDM/kg N) Time for full response Slow105:1 10:1 6-8 weeks 10-14 weeks Moderate20-4010:16-8 weeks Fast50-7015:15-6 weeks Rapid7025:13-4 weeks N is the most effective extra feed you can buy at 12 cents per kg of dry matter applied (assume 10:1 response)

49 NCE – Response rate Amount of available N in the soil pool. Temperature of the soil. Plant growth. Moisture. Rate of N applied per application. Leaching. Weather there are other nutrients limiting plant growth. Nutrient Management49

50 Timing Needs to be applied N needs to be applied to feed genuine feed deficits. Surplus feed can be harvested to make supplements. Response to N occurs over 3-14 weeks and needs to be applied in anticipation of a feed deficit. Use feed budgeting and monitor actual pasture cover against target cover to ensure N is applied early enough to fill the deficit. Nutrient Management50

51 General good practice N is a growth multiplier - apply strategically to multiply growth that was going to occur. Use a feed budget. Are you going to be short of feed? If so, determine rate and amount of N. Work on 10:1 response. Keep to 25-50 kgs N per application. Utilise extra feed to prevent shading of clovers and to make $. If soil moisture is limiting or hot apply with impending rain. Nutrient Management51

52 NCE timing Nutrient Management52

53 Overseer Common Issues Soil texture Rainfall Fertiliser history Supplements used: Changing rapidly Seasonal variation Changing effluent systems Feed / stand off pads And ? Nutrient Management53

54 How do some farms spend more on nutrients? Application above maintenance. Capital fertiliser. They do not utilise the nutrients of the effluent well. Soil test levels are higher than optimum They choose the more expensive fertiliser options. Nutrient Management54

55 How can farmers reduce on nutrient expenditure? Regular soil tests. Nutrient budgets. Sustainable milk plans / Nutrient management plans. Pasture monitoring to forcast pasture surplus/deficit(N use). Manage account for supplement use. Effluent management. Nutrient Management55

56 Information needed! Soil type and test results. Fertiliser history. Topography of major land blocks. Production(Milk solids per hectare). Climate – rainfall and temperature. Imported, exported feed. Effluent areas, rates of application. Nutrient Management56

57 Individual and group work Nutrient Management57

58 Summary By understanding your farm resources and using a nutrient budget to quantify and track nutrient sources and outputs, fertilizer costs could be reduced, the amount of nutrients in supplements and effluent can be tracked and any potential environment impacts can be fassessed. Nutrient Management58

59 Nutrient Management59

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