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Carbon. Isomer Examples You Tube Video of Optical Isomerism.

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Presentation on theme: "Carbon. Isomer Examples You Tube Video of Optical Isomerism."— Presentation transcript:

1 Carbon











12 Isomer Examples You Tube Video of Optical Isomerism

13 Contrast Caraway and Spearmint ISOMERS (get taste samples)

14 Thalidomide Isomers Treated nausea of women in 1950’s Changed to isomer form in the body that caused a birth defect

15 ISOMERS L-dopa (Precursors to the neuro- transmitter dopamine) to treat Parkinson’s –but D-dopa causes (“D” polarize light to R.) deficiency of white blood cells Allegra is the isomer of Seldane (for nose congestion) Lexapro is the active isomer of Celexa (antidepressants)



18 COMMON ELEMENTS OF MACROMOLECULES CHNOPS Carbon – hydrogen- nitrogen-oxygen- phosphorus-sulfur

19 FUNCTIONAL GROUPS: know them Group of atoms attached to a carbon skeleton involved in chemical reactions Five groups are polar, hydrophilic (water-loving) and are soluble in water The sixth group, the methyl group, is nonpolar, and nonreactive

20 ADD: sulfhydryl group -SH

21 FUNCTIONAL GROUP: HYDROXYL GROUP -OH Organic compounds containing –OH groups are called alcohols C 2 H 5 OH ethanol (or ethyl alcohol): molecular formula and structural formula

22 FUNCTIONAL GROUP: CARBONYL GROUP -C=O If at the end, the compound is called an aldehyde (like acetaldehyde in ripe fruit). If in the middle, it is called a ketone (broken down in liver, used in brain) Commonly in sugars.



25 FUNCTIONAL GROUP: CARBOXYL GROUP -COOH or H acts as an acid (carboxylic acid) to donate H+ EX: acetic acid CH 3 COOH

26 FUNCTIONAL GROUP: AMINO GROUP -NH 2 Acts as a base by picking up a H+ (to make NH 3 ) Compounds with amino groups are called amines EX: amino acids are building blocks of protein

27 FUNCTIONAL GROUP: PHOSPHATE GROUP -OPO 3 -2 Compounds with phosphates are called organic phosphates Involved in energy transfer, ATP

28 FUNCTIONAL GROUP: METHYL GROUP -CH 3 Compounds with methyl groups are called methylated compounds EX: Found in DNA

29 ADD THIS FUNCTIONAL GROUP: Sulfhydryl group –C–SH or R–SH (S takes the place of O in a –OH group) (less polar) -SH group can also be referred to as a thiol group FYI: Smell like garlic, put in natural gas for an odor Methanethiol Cysteine

30 PRESENTATION: FUNCTIONAL GROUP - 7points A. functional group B. name compound it forms C. depict the structural formula D. show how to remember it E. Creative F. Easy for classmates to remember You tubeYou tube G. polar or nonpolar EXTRA CREDIT: if you make a visual of your functional group for class display

31 WILL DO WORKSHEET “Identifying Functional Groups” Work hard like Larry here.

32 4 Types of Macromolecules Proteins Nucleic Acids Carbohydrates Lipids

33 Macromolecule or Polymer a large molecule consisting of many identical or similar subunits strung together

34 Polymer A large molecule (macromolecule) consisting of many smaller molecules (monomers) into chains

35 Monomers the subunits that serve as the building blocks

36 Polymerization Joining monomers to make a polymer LINK Animation of a Condensation PolymerizationAnimation of a Condensation Polymerization

37 Dehydration Synthesis A.K.A. polymerization Dehydration Synthesis You Tube

38 Dehydration Synthesis Start with small molecules (monomers), by removing water end with large molecules (polymers)

39 Dehydration Synthesis Monomers (small molecules) are linked together by a process that takes out a molecule of water to form a polymer (macromolecule).

40 Hydrolysis

41 Polymers are disassembled to monomers by hydrolysis in which bonds are broken by the addition of water

42 Hydrolysis Start with large molecules (polymer) add water and end with small molecules (monomer)

43 Videos You Tube Dehydration Synthesis and Hydrolysis You Tube Dehydration Synthesis and Hydrolysis Easy animations Making and Breaking

44 MACROMOLECULES Receive chart of macromolecules and tips Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids

45 Carbohydrates are Made Of: C : H : O or CH 2 O 1 : 2 : 1 EX: C 6 H 12 O 6 glucose- most common monosaccharide C 12 H 22 O 11 = 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 − H 2 O

46 What functional groups are in carbohydrates?

47 Carbonyl aldehyde or ketone Hydroxyl

48 Carbohydrates “Sugars” Names for Carbohydrates end in –ose Monomers: monosaccharides

49 Why would you choose one model over another? Structural formula Space- filling model Abbreviated structure

50 Monomer of Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides Simple sugar -main use in body: fuel EX: glucose – most common galactose –milk sugar fructose – fruit sugar

51 Carbohydrates Monosaccharides-single sugars – the monomer of carbos Disaccharides-double sugars Polysaccharides-many sugars

52 Carbohydrate Rings Monosaccharide Single sugar Disaccharide Double sugar

53 Disaccharides

54 Dehydration Synthesis of Carbohydrates What is removed? From what functional group?

55 Glycosidic Bond: covalent bond joining monosaccharides gly- or glu- are prefixes for “sweet”


57 Polysaccharide: many sugars

58 Polysaccharides macromolecules with a few to 1000 monosaccharides linked together

59 Polysaccharides Storage Polysaccharides: starch (from plants) and glycogen (from animals) Structural Polysaccharides: chitin (in fungi cell walls and in exoskeleton of arthropods) and cellulose (in plant cell walls)

60 Starch Foods found in plants: Potatoes, wheat, corn, rice Found in plant roots

61 Glycogen ANIMAL STORAGE storage form of glucose Found in animal livers and muscle cells Foods: meats

62 Cellulose: plant cell walls stiff Us: good fiber Glucose polymer

63 Chitin Onion Cell Walls are of cellulose Exoskeleton of insects, crabs

64 Which is a monosaccharide? A disaccharide? A polysaccharide? cellulose chitin glucose glycogen sucrose starch

65 Which is a monosaccharide? A disaccharide? A polysaccharide? Cellulose P Chitin P Glucose M Glycogen M Sucrose D Starch P

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