Presentation on theme: "Philosopher who believed that: There are 4 elements: earth, water, air, fire. Matter is divisible."— Presentation transcript:
Philosopher who believed that: There are 4 elements: earth, water, air, fire. Matter is divisible.
First atomic theory Atom (indivisible).
Aiming to: Change common metals to gold. Develop medicines. Developed lab equipment. Mystical.
Father of the scientific method (along with the Englishman Francis Bacon 1500’s).
Regarded as the Father of Chemistry. Designed equipment. Used observations and measurements. Discovered nitrogen.
First Periodic Table of elements.
Pure substances that cannot be separated into different substances by ordinary processes Are the building blocks of matter 112 elements known today Examples: carbon gold calcium LecturePLUS Timberlake8
Use 1 or 2 letter abbreviations Capitalize the first letter only Examples: C carbon Cocobalt N nitrogenCacalcium F fluorine Br bromine O oxygen Mg magnesium LecturePLUS Timberlake9
O65.0 %K 0.34 C18.0S 0.26 H10.0Na 0.14 N 3.0Cl 0.14 Ca 1.4Fe P 1.0 Zn Mg 0.50 Trace Elements As, Cr, Co, Cu, F, I, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se, Si, V LecturePLUS Timberlake11
Select the correct symbol for each: A. Calcium 1) C2) Ca3) CA B. Sulfur 1) S2) Sl3) Su C. Iron 1) Ir2) FE3) Fe LecturePLUS Timberlake12
Select the correct symbol for each: A. Calcium 2) Ca B. Sulfur 1) S C. Iron 3) Fe LecturePLUS Timberlake13
Select the correct name for each: A. N 1) neon2) nitrogen 3) nickel B. P 1) potassium2) phogiston 3) phosphorus C. Ag 1) silver2) agean3) gold LecturePLUS Timberlake14
Select the correct name for each: A. N 2) nitrogen B. P 3) phosphorus C. Ag 1) silver LecturePLUS Timberlake15
The periodic table is an arrangement of the elements according to similarities in their chemical and physical properties. LecturePLUS Timberlake16
The characteristics of a substance that can be observed without changing the substance. Color Size Shape Density Freezing and Boiling Points Odor LecturePLUS Timberlake17
Atomic Number Atomic Number –Equal to # protons = # electrons –Periodic Table is arranged by this number Symbol Symbol –“Shorthand” for the element – Note 2 nd letter is always lowercase Atomic Mass Number Atomic Mass Number –Total AVERAGE mass of Protons + Neutrons + Electrons 17 Cl 35. 5
Electrons are arranged in “Shells” around nucleus in predictable locations Fill “seats” closest to nucleus first (concert – best seats) “Seats” available ◦ Shell #12 electrons ◦ Shell #28 electrons ◦ Shell #38 electrons ◦ Shell #4 18 electrons ◦ Shell #5 32 electrons ◦ Shell #650 electrons Ex. Carbon has 6 total electrons so… Two electrons on first energy level Four electrons on second energy level Question: Could we fit more electrons on the second energy level if there were more electrons in carbon??
17 Cl Total Mass of Nucleus = 18 neutrons Element Name Chlorine Total # of protons and electrons (in a neutral atom) 17 protons in nucleus 17 electrons orbiting nucleus Notice: electrons follow energy level rules from previous slide. (Round Atomic Mass)
Vertical columns on the periodic table Similar physical properties Similar chemical properties LecturePLUS Timberlake22
Group 1Alkali Metals Group 2 Alkaline Earth Metals Group 7 Halogens Group 8Noble Gases LecturePLUS Timberlake24
LecturePLUS Timberlake25 A l m k e a t l a i l s AlkalineAlkaline HalogensHalogens I G n a e s r e t s
Horizontal rows from Group 1 to Group 8. Numbered 1, 2, 3, …. Include representative elements and transition elements LecturePLUS Timberlake26