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Nonmetallic Elements and Their Compounds Chapter 21 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Presentation on theme: "Nonmetallic Elements and Their Compounds Chapter 21 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nonmetallic Elements and Their Compounds Chapter 21 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

2 21.1 Nonmetallic Elements Metalloids

3 Hydrogen Production C 3 H 8 (g) + 3H 2 O (g) 3CO (g) + 7H 2 (g) C (s) + H 2 O (g) CO (g) + H 2 (g) Zn (s) + 2HCl (aq) ZnCl 2 (aq) + H 2 (g) 21.2

4 Binary Hydrides of the Representative Elements 21.2

5 Isotopes of Hydrogen 1 H (hydrogen), 2 H (deuterium, D), 3 H (tritium, T) 111 Kinetic isotope effect CH 3 COOH (aq) CH 3 COO - (aq) + H + (aq) K a = 1.8 x CH 3 COOD (aq) CH 3 COO - (aq) + D + (aq) K a = 6 x

6 Hydrogenation Hydrogenation is the addition of hydrogen to compounds containing multiple bonds. C H C H H H H 2 + C C HH HH HH 21.2 Pt catalyst on Al 2 O 3 used in hydrogenation

7 The Hydrogen Economy 2H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2H 2 O (l) FuelFuel Value (kJ/g) Wood (pine)18 Coal31 Crude oil45 Gasoline48 Natural gas49 Hydrogen142 Fuel Values of Some Common Fuels 21.2

8 Chemistry In Action: Metallic Hydrogen

9 21.3 Phase Diagram of Carbon C (diamond) C (graphite)  G 0 = kJ

10 Chemistry In Action: Synthetic Gas from Coal C (s) + H 2 O (g) CO (g) + H 2 (g) C (s) + 2H 2 (g) CH 4 (g) CO (g) + 2H 2 (g) CH 3 OH (l) 21.3

11 21.4

12 2Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 (s) + 10C (s) + 6SiO 2 (s) 6CaSiO 3 (s) + 10CO (g) + P 4 (s) P 4 (s) + 5O 2 (g) P 4 O 10 (s) nP 4 (white phosphorus) (P 4 ) n (red phosphorus) C 21.4

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14 Common Phosphorus-Containing Oxoacids 21.4

15 Chemistry In Action: Ammonium Nitrate–The Explosive Fertilizer NH 4 NO 3 (g) N 2 O (g) + 2H 2 O (g) 2NH 4 NO 3 (g) 2N 2 (g) + 4H 2 O (g) + O 2 (g) At T > C At T > C

16 basic oxidesacidic oxidesamphoteric basicity O 2- oxide O O 2- peroxide O O - superoxide O 2- (aq) + H 2 O (l) 2OH - (aq) O 2- (aq) + 2H 2 O (l) O 2 (g) + 4OH - (aq) 2 4O - (aq) + 2H 2 O (l) 3O 2 (g) + 4OH - (aq)

17 Ozone 3O 2 (g) 2O 3 (g)  G 0 = kJ (powerful oxidizing agent) Electrical Discharge Production of Ozone 21.5

18 Frasch Process 21.5

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20 21.6

21 Electrolytic Production of Fluorine 2F - F 2 (g) + 2e - 2H + + 2e - H 2 (g) 2HF H 2 (g) + F 2 (g) 21.6

22 MnO 2 (s) + 2H 2 SO 4 (aq) + 2NaCl (aq) MnSO 4 (aq) + Na 2 SO 4 (aq) + 2H 2 O (l) + Cl 2 (g) Laboratory Production of Chlorine Gas 21.6

23 Chlorine Production by the Chlor-Alkali Process 2Cl - (aq) Cl 2 (g) + 2e - 2NaCl (aq) 2Na/Hg (g) + Cl 2 (g) 2Na + (aq) + 2e - 2Na/Hg Hg (l) 21.6

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