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Charin Tongkasame Environmental Expert/Engineer PAL Consultants Co., Ltd. (PALCON) INWEPF 4 th Steering Meeting and Symposium July 5, 2007 WATER POLLUTION.

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Presentation on theme: "Charin Tongkasame Environmental Expert/Engineer PAL Consultants Co., Ltd. (PALCON) INWEPF 4 th Steering Meeting and Symposium July 5, 2007 WATER POLLUTION."— Presentation transcript:

1 Charin Tongkasame Environmental Expert/Engineer PAL Consultants Co., Ltd. (PALCON) INWEPF 4 th Steering Meeting and Symposium July 5, 2007 WATER POLLUTION CAUSED BY RICE FARMING IN THAILAND WATER POLLUTION CAUSED BY RICE FARMING IN THAILAND

2 OBJECTIVES OF PAPER TO PRESENT :  Overall Picture of Water Pollution Caused by Agricultural NPSs and Rice Farming in Thailand (by DPC)  Results of Two Case Studies (by PALCON for RID)  Recommended Guidelines for Management of Water Pollution from Agricultural NPSs

3 1.OVERALL PICTURE (by DPC) Agricultural Areas in Thailand in 2002 So, Paddy Fields Could be Significant Sources of Water Pollutants from ANPSs 47.2 x ha 29.0 % 40.1 % 18.9 % 12.0 % Paddy Fields Forests Others Upland Crops

4  Nitrogen  Phosphorus  Organic Matters (BOD)  Pesticides MAJOR POLLUTANTS CAUSED BY ANPSs & RICE FARMING (by DPC)

5 PERCENTAGES OF POLLUTANTS FROM PADDY FIELDS, 2002 (by DPC) Per Cent of Pollutants Caused by Paddy Fields TNTPBODPesticides

6 Pollutant Concentration (mg/l) ThailandForeign 1. TN TP BOD Pesticides CONCENTRATIONS OF POLLUTANTS FROM PADDY FIELDS (by DPC)  Considerably High Contents of Pollutants From Paddy Fields in Thailand

7 2.RESULTS OF CASE STUDIES 1)PRANBURI O&M PROJECT IN PRACHUAB KHIRI KHAN, SOUTHERNMOST PROVINCE SOUTHERNMOST PROVINCE OF CENTRAL THAILAND (2005) - Paddy Fields = 18.8% - Paddy Fields = 18.8%

8 2)MUNO AND PASEMUS O&M PROJECTS IN NARATHIWAS, PROJECTS IN NARATHIWAS, A SOUTHERNMOST PROVINCE OF A SOUTHERNMOST PROVINCE OF THAILAND (1998) THAILAND (1998) -Sharing Same Main Canal -Paddy Fields=51.0%  Water Quality and Aquatic Biology Studies Studies  Sampling in Rainy and Dry Seasons in Irrigation and Drainage Canals in Irrigation and Drainage Canals

9 Locations of Case – Study Projects MPOMP Narathiwas Prachuab Khiri Khan POMP Bangkok

10 DO (mg/l) PRANBURI O&M PROJECT -Water Quality (WQ) EC (µs/cm) BOD (mg/l) FCB (MPN/100 ml) Dry Season Irrigation Canal Drainage Canal

11 Phytoplankton (10 6 cell/m 3 ) Rainy Season Irrigation Canal Drainage Canal Benthic Faunas (org./m 3 ) Fish Standing Crop (kg/ha) -Aquatic Biology (AB) PRANBURI O&M PROJECT 533

12 DO (mg/l) Water Quality (WQ) EC (µs/cm) BOD (mg/l) pH Dry Season Irrigation Canal Drainage Canal MUNO AND PASEMUS PROJECTS

13 Phytoplankton (10 6 cell/m 3 ) Dry Season Irrigation Canal Drainage Canal Benthic Faunas (org./m 3 ) Fish Standing Crop (kg/ha) -Aquatic Biology (AB) MUNO AND PASEMUS PROJECTS

14 CONCLUSIONS : 1)Water Pollution due to ANPSs Is Significant, and Will Become More Serious in Future 2) Paddy Fields Contribute Significant Pollutant Loads, esp. BOD, TP, TN, TDS, EC, Coliform Bacteria; with Pesticides to a Lesser Degree 3) Good Pollution Control Is Needed for ANPSs and Paddy Fields

15 3. GUIDELINES FOR MANAGEMENT OF WATER POLLUTION FROM ANPSs COUNTRY’S GUIDELINES : - Agricultural Development Plan for Policy and Master Plan for Use of Pesticides  GAP (Appropriate Uses to Prevent Excessive and Untimely Uses to Minimize Residues) and Untimely Uses to Minimize Residues)  Stringent Control of Import and Uses of Toxic Agrichemicals Agrichemicals  Definite Management Programs/Projects/ Measures Need to Be Planned & Implemented Measures Need to Be Planned & Implemented

16 RECOMMENDED WPM FOR ANPSs & PADDY FIELDS (1) FORMULATION OF POLICIES AND GUIDELINES GUIDELINES  GAPs  GPMPs  GAPs  GPMPs  Databases Preparation  Databases Preparation  Plan for Implementation of Definite WPM  Plan for Implementation of Definite WPM Programs/Projects/Measures Programs/Projects/Measures  For Major River Basins, Sub-basins,  For Major River Basins, Sub-basins, Large Project Areas Large Project Areas

17 (2)PREPARATION OF GOOD DATABASES : INCLUDING DATABASES : INCLUDING  WQ, Aquatic Biology  WQ, Aquatic Biology  Agri Practices (Use of Agrichemicals) Agrichemicals)  Pollution from Other Sources  Pollution from Other Sources  Effects of Pollution on AB, Fisheries, etc. Fisheries, etc.  Regular Updates

18 (3)IMPLEMENTATION OF WPM PROGRAMS/PROJECTS/MEASURES BY USING LOCAL PARTICIPATORY METHOD : PARTICIPATORY METHOD :INVOLVING -Farmers, Farmers’ Groups and Networks -Local Agricultural Officials -Local Admin. Offices (PAOs, TAOs) -Educational Institutes Concerned

19 (4)MONITORING AND EVALUATION OF WPM PROGRAMS -Performance of Participants -Performance of the Program -Recommending Program Improvements

20 FORMULATION OF POLICIES & GUIDELINES WPM FOR ANPSs DATABASEPROGRESS UPDATEOF PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION DATABASEMONITORING UPDATEAND EVALATION LOCAL PARTICIPATION RECOMMENDED IMPROVEMENTS DATABASES IMPROVEMENTS GAPs, GPMPs WPM Programs

21 Thank You

22 GENERATION RATES AND PRECENTAGES OF POLLUTANTS FROM PADDY FIELDS, 2002 Total Load Gen. Rate by % Caused Pollutant from All ANPSs Paddy Fields by Paddy (tons/yr)(kg/ha/yr)Fields 1. TN 886, , TP 223, , BOD 624, , Pesticides 1,163 1,  High Contributions of Pollutants by Paddy Fields

23 PRANBURI O&M PROJECT -Water Quality (WQ) Parameter Dry Season Rainy Season ICDCICDC 1. EC (  s/cm) , pH DO (mg/l) BOD (mg/l) Nitrate-N (mg/l) ND Phosphate (mg/l) NDNDND Pesticides (ppb) NDNDNDND 8. Coliform Bacteria (MPN/100 ml) - Total Coliform - Total Coliform493509,0003,000 - Faecal Coliform - Faecal Coliform ,000

24 -Aquatic Biology (AB) Parameter Dry Season Rainy Season ICDCICDC 1. Plankton 1) Phytoplankton (10 6 cells/m 3 ) 1) Phytoplankton (10 6 cells/m 3 ) ) Zooplankton (10 6 org./m 3 ) 2) Zooplankton (10 6 org./m 3 ) Benthic Faunas 1) Density (org./m 3 ) 1) Density (org./m 3 )1, Fish 1) Standing Crop (kg/ha) 1) Standing Crop (kg/ha) There Are Adverse Effects of Pollution in Return Flows on WQ & AB

25 MUNO AND PASEMUS PROJECTS -Water Quality Parameter Dry Season Rainy Season ICDCICDC 1. EC (  s/cm) pH TDS (mg/l) DO (mg/l) BOD (mg/l) Nitrate-N (mg/l) Phosphate (mg/l) Pesticides (  g/l) - DDT - DDT ND Heptachlor - Heptachlor0.01ND

26 -Aquatic Biology Parameter Dry Season Rainy Season ICDCICDC 1. Plankton 1) Phytoplankton (10 6 cells/m 3 ) 1) Phytoplankton (10 6 cells/m 3 ) ) Zooplankton (10 6 org./m 3 ) 2) Zooplankton (10 6 org./m 3 ) Benthic Faunas 1) Density (org./m 3 ) 1) Density (org./m 3 ) Fish 1) Standing Crop (kg/ha) 1) Standing Crop (kg/ha) There are also Adverse Effects of Pollution in Return Flows on WQ and AB


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