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Classifying Matter Matter Elements Compounds Mixtures

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1 Classifying Matter Matter Elements Compounds Mixtures
Scientists classify matter according to make-up. Matter Elements Compounds Mixtures

2 Elements Simplest pure substance – fixed composition.
Pure substance is made of only one material. Same throughout. Referred to as homogeneous matter. Are made of alike atoms, which are the basic building blocks of matter. Represented by chemical symbols - H, O, Al, Cu, Au. 118 elements organized in the periodic table in squares called an element key.

3 Element Key Atomic Number I.D’s the element Symbol Element Name
Atomic Mass I.D’s the element represents elements mass of element (amu’s)

4 Elements/Symbols Calcium Tin Uranium Magnesium Phosphorus Iron iodine
Silver Helium Mercury Nickel Silicon Sulfur Copper Chromium Aluminum Bromine Hydrogen Zinc Potassium Oxygen Lead Lithium Gold Fluorine Neon Nitrogen Sodium Carbon Chlorine

5 Compounds Two or more elements chemically combined.
Represented by chemical formulas. Examples: H2O, CO2, NaCl, C12H22O11 Molecules are the smallest natural unit of a compound or diatomic element. A molecule is made up of two or more atoms chemically combined.

6 Chemical Formulas Combination of chemical symbols that represents compounds. Sometimes represents a molecule of an element. Example: O2, N2, Cl2 called diatomic elements – two atoms of the same element. Subscripts are the # of atoms of an element - H2O Coefficients are the # placed in front of chemical formula. Represents # of molecules of a compound H2O

7 Identifying Substances
Element or Compound Symbol or Formula Atom or Molecule Fluorine (F) Water (H2O) Chlorine gas (Cl2) Element Symbol Atom Compound Formula Molecule Element Formula Molecule

8 Found in milk of magnesia
Counting Atoms Name Use Formula Atoms in Formula Calcium carbonate Chalk CaCO3 Magnesium hydroxide Found in milk of magnesia Mg(OH)2 Phosphoric acid Detergents 3H3PO4 Trinitrotoluene (TNT) Explosive 2C7H5(NO2)3 Ca=1 C=1 O=3 Mg=1 O=2 H=2 H=9 P=3 O=12 C=14 N=6 H=10 O=12

9 Calculating Formula Mass
Formula mass of a compound is the sum of the atomic weights of all atoms in a chemical formula. Examples: Atoms Atomic Mass Totals H2O 2 of H x 1 of O x 18.0 amu C12H22O of C x 22 of H x 11 of O x 342.0 amu

10 Mixtures Two or more substances mixed together but not chemically combined. Has unlike parts and a composition that varies from sample to sample. Properties: Sub. in a mixture keep their separate identities. Sub. can be present in any amount. Sub. can be separated out by physical means.

11 Mixtures

12 Heterogeneous Mixtures
The least-mixed. Doesn’t appear to be the same throughout. Particles large enough to be seen. Examples: sand, dirt, concrete, suspensions, etc.

13 Homogeneous Mixtures Well-mixed. Same throughout a given sample.
Examples: air, soda, toothpaste, lotions, etc.

14 Solutions A homogeneous mixture.
One substance dissolves in another. Solutions remain constantly & uniformly mixed. Examples: lemonade, soda, ocean water, antifreeze, metal alloys (steel, brass), etc.

15 Colloids A homogeneous mixture. Mixed together but not dissolved.
Appears cloudy. Scatters light. Examples: milk, cool whip, toothpaste, lotions, fog, paint, etc.

16 Composition of Matter

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