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Chapter 2. Matter and Change  2.1 – Properties of Matter  2.2 – Mixtures  2.3 – Elements and Compounds  2.4 – Chemical Reactions 2.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2. Matter and Change  2.1 – Properties of Matter  2.2 – Mixtures  2.3 – Elements and Compounds  2.4 – Chemical Reactions 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 2

2 Matter and Change  2.1 – Properties of Matter  2.2 – Mixtures  2.3 – Elements and Compounds  2.4 – Chemical Reactions 2

3 Objectives  Differentiate and give examples of extensive and intensive properties  Distinguish the three primary states of matter  Distinguish physical from chemical change.  Classify mixtures as homogeneous or heterogeneous.  Distinguish between elements and compounds.  Memorize the 24 most encountered elements names and symbols.  Distinguish chemical from physical properties 3

4 Extensive Properties  Mass - amount of matter of an object.  Volume - the space occupied by an object.  Extensive Property - a property that depends on the amount of matter in a sample. 4

5 Intensive Properties  a property that depends on the type of matter, not the amount of matter.  Example: Hardness of a rock Boiling point 5

6 Substances  Matter that has a uniform and definite composition 6

7 Physical Properties  Can be observed or measured without changing the composition of a substance  Can be used to identify substances  Examples: Hardness Color Malleability Boiling Point 7

8 Identifying Substances 8

9 Physical Changes  Some properties of the material may change, but the composition stays the same  Can be reversible or irreversible  Examples: Boil Freeze Break Crush 9

10 States of Matter  Solid Definite shape and volume Particles are highly organized and packed close together Not easily compressed  Liquid Definite volume; takes the shape of its container Particles are tightly packed together, but arranged randomly Not easily compressed  Gas Takes the shape and volume of its container Particles are spaced very far apart Easily Compressed 10

11 States of Matter 11

12 Vapor  the gaseous state of a substance that is generally a liquid or solid at room temperature 12

13 Classification of Physical Changes  some properties of a material change  the composition of the material remains the same 13

14 14

15 24 Common Elements CarbonCAluminumAlCopperCu (from cuprum) FluorineFBromineBrIronFe (from ferrum) HydrogenHCalciumCaLeadPb (from plumbum) IodineIChlorineClMercuryHg (from hydrargyrum) NitrogenNHeliumHePotassiumK (from kalium) OxygenOLithiumLiSilverAg (from argentum) PhosphorusPMagnesiumMgSodiumNa (from hatrium) SulfurSSiliconSiTinSn (from stannum) 15

16 16

17 Mixture  physical blend of two or more components  heterogeneous mixture – composition is not uniform throughout (2 or more phases/part)  homogeneous mixture – the composition is uniform throughout is a (single phase/part) Also known as a solution. 17

18 Separating Mixtures  Filtration - separates a solid from the liquid in a heterogeneous mixture  Distillation – a liquid is boiled to produce a vapor that is then condensed into a liquid. 18

19 Elements vs. Compounds  element – the simplest form of matter that has a unique set of properties.  compound – a substance that contains two or more elements chemically combined in a fixed proportion. Properties of the individual components are different than the properties of the compound 19

20 Distinguishing Substances & Mixtures 20

21 21

22 Chemical Reactions  Chemical Property ability of a chemical to undergo a chemical change  Reactant – substances that undergo change  Products – New substances 22

23 Chemical Changes  produces matter with a different composition than the original matter  Evidence of a change Energy Transfer Color Change Production of gas Production of a precipitate 23

24 Law of Conservation of Mass  Matter is neither created or destroyed; it is only changed  Mass of the products = Mass of the reactants 24


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