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Chapter 4 The Organization of Life. 4.1 Ecosystems: Everything is Connected Ecosystem—all of the organisms living in an area together with their physical.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 The Organization of Life. 4.1 Ecosystems: Everything is Connected Ecosystem—all of the organisms living in an area together with their physical."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4 The Organization of Life

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3 4.1 Ecosystems: Everything is Connected Ecosystem—all of the organisms living in an area together with their physical environment Oak Forest Coral Reef Vacant Lot Lake Erie Corn Field

4 Components of an Ecosystem Organism—a single living thing Species—a group of organisms that are closely related and can interbreed Population—all the members of the same species that live in the same place at the same time Community—a group of various populations that live in the same area and interact with each other

5 Biotic and Abiotic Factors Biotic Living and once living parts of the ecosystem Dead organisms Dead parts of organisms Organisms’ waste products Abiotic Non-living parts of the ecosystem Air Water Rocks Sand Light temperature

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7 Identify : Organism, Population, Community Community Organism Population

8 Habitat—the place an organism lives Habitats have specific characteristics Organisms are well suited to their habitat Many animals and plants cannot survive very long away from their habitat One minor change in the habitat can disrupt the entire ecosystem

9 Everything is Connected! Disruptions at any level can devastate an ecosystem and cause unwanted change Factors that can affect ecosystems: Pollution Habitat destruction Introduction of non-native species Over-hunting Disease CLIMATE CHANGE (add to your notes!)

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11 4.2 Evolution Natural/Artificial Selection Biological Resistance Adaptation

12 Evolution A change in genetic characteristics of a population from one generation to the next

13 Darwin's Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection: 1. Variation exists among individuals in a species. 2. Individuals of species will compete for resources (food and space). 3. Some competition would lead to the death of some individuals while others would survive. 4. Individuals that had advantageous variations are more likely to survive and reproduce. 5. Organisms produce more offspring than can survive. Each generation contains more organisms with advantageous traits. Favorable variations are called Adaptations

14 1.Variation exists among individuals in a species. Darwin’s finches

15 2.Individuals of species will compete for resources (food and space).

16 3.Some competition would lead to the death of some individuals while others would survive.

17 4.Individuals that had advantageous variations are more likely to survive and reproduce. Albino tiger

18 5.Organisms produce more offspring than will survive. Each generation contains more organisms with favorable traits. Sea turtle eggs Sea turtle hatchlings

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20 Adaptation—inherited trait that increases chances of survival Peppered Moths

21 Camouflage and Mimicry—ways animals adapt to their environment

22 Coevolution Organisms evolve adaptations to other organisms and their physical environment The process of two species evolving in response to one another is called coevolution Hawaiian honeycreeper and the lobelia flower

23 Artificial Selection Selective breeding of organisms by humans Humans control how some organisms evolve Humans select for certain traits and breed the organisms EX. Dogs, cats, livestock, fruits, vegetables, crops Heirloom tomatoes

24 Artificial Selection Traits in dogs were selected from wolves according to the job needed to be performed for humans

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26 Resistance the ability of an organism to tolerate a particular chemical designed to kill it

27 Pesticide Resistance A farmer sprayed his field with pesticides containing chemicals designed to kill insects

28 Pesticide Resistance Most insects die Some insects had favorable traits that allowed them to survive The left-over insects were able to reproduce

29 Pesticide Resistance More offspring inherited the advantage of chemical resistance The farmer sprayed his field again with the same chemical

30 Pesticide Resistance The pesticide was only effective in killing the few who still did NOT have resistance New, chemically resistant insects are now a problem

31 Antibiotic Resistance Antibiotics are designed to kill bacteria Bacteria can become resistant to antibiotics New antibiotics will need to be developed This takes time Will new antibiotics be ready if we have an outbreak?

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33 4.3 The Diversity of Living Things Six Kingdoms

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36 Bacteria Characteristics: Microscopic Single-celled Reproduce by dividing in half Most have cell walls Have no nucleus

37 Bacteria Divided into two kingdoms: Archaebacteria Found in harsh environments  Mathanogens—live in swamps, produce methane  Extreme Thermophiles—live in hot springs Eubacteria Incredibly common Causes disease Found in soil  Proteobacteria—common is soils and animal intestines  Cyanobacteria—called blue-green algae

38 Bacteria & Environment Break down remains and wastes of organisms Return nutrients to soil Recycle nitrogen and phosphorus Allow organisms to obtain nutrients from food E. coli—lives in human intestines and helps break down food and releases vitamins

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41 Fungi Absorb food through body surfaces Have cell walls Most live on land Some cause disease Break down bodies and body parts of dead organisms Examples; Yeasts, mushrooms, molds, mildews, rusts

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43 Protists Most single-celled Some multi-cellular Most live in water Cause disease Food for many organisms Examples; Algae, plankton, diatoms, amoebas, seaweed, plasmodium (causes malaria)

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45 Plants Multicelluar Make their own food through photosynthesis Have cell walls Most live on land Two main groups: Gymnosperms Pine trees and evergreens Angiosperms The flowering plants

46 Gymnosperms

47 Angiosperms

48 Animals Multicellular No cell wall Ingest their food Live on land and water Two main subclasses: Invertebrates No backbones Vertebrates Have backbones

49 Invertebrates Insects Sponges Worms Corals

50 Vertebrates Fish Reptiles Birds mammals


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