2The Nature of Covalent Bonding 8.2The colors in this map indicate the concentrations of ozone in various parts of Earth’s atmosphere. Oxygen atoms can join in pairs to form the oxygen you breathe and can also join in groups of three oxygen atoms to form ozone.
3The Octet Rule in Covalent Bonding 8.2The Octet Rule in Covalent BondingThe Octet Rule in Covalent BondingWhat is the result of electron sharing in covalent bonds?
4The Octet Rule in Covalent Bonding 8.2The Octet Rule in Covalent BondingIn covalent bonds, electron sharing usually occurs so that atoms attain the electron configurations of noble gases.
58.2Single Covalent BondsSingle Covalent BondsHow do electron dot structures represent shared electrons?
68.2Single Covalent BondsTwo atoms held together by sharing a pair of electrons are joined by a single covalent bond.
78.2Single Covalent BondsAn electron dot structure such as H:H represents the shared pair of electrons of the covalent bond by two dots.A structural formula represents the covalent bonds by dashes and shows the arrangement of covalently bonded atoms.
88.2Single Covalent BondsThe halogens form single covalent bonds in their diatomic molecules. Fluorine is one example.
98.2Single Covalent BondsA pair of valence electrons that is not shared between atoms is called an unshared pair, also known as a lone pair or a nonbonding pair.
108.2Single Covalent BondsThe hydrogen and oxygen atoms attain noble- gas configurations by sharing electrons.
11The ammonia molecule has one unshared pair of electrons. 8.2Single Covalent BondsThe ammonia molecule has one unshared pair of electrons.
12Methane has no unshared pairs of electrons. 8.2Single Covalent BondsMethane has no unshared pairs of electrons.
16for Conceptual Problem 8.1 Section AssessmentProblem Solving 8.8 Solve Problem 8 with the help of an interactive guided tutorial.
17Double and Triple Covalent Bonds 8.2Double and Triple Covalent BondsDouble and Triple Covalent BondsHow do atoms form double or triple covalent bonds?
18Double and Triple Covalent Bonds 8.2Double and Triple Covalent BondsAtoms form double or triple covalent bonds if they can attain a noble gas structure by sharing two pairs or three pairs of electrons.
19Double and Triple Covalent Bonds 8.2Double and Triple Covalent BondsA bond that involves two shared pairs of electrons is a double covalent bond.A bond formed by sharing three pairs of electrons is a triple covalent bond.
20Simulation 6 Simulate the covalent bonding between molecules Covalent BondsSimulation 6 Simulate the covalent bonding between molecules
21Double and Triple Covalent Bonds 8.2Double and Triple Covalent BondsEach nitrogen atom has one unshared pair of electrons.Oxygen and nitrogen are the main components of Earth’s atmosphere. The oxygen molecule is an exception to the octet rule. It has two unpaired electrons. Three pairs of electrons are shared in a nitrogen molecule.
22Double and Triple Covalent Bonds 8.2Double and Triple Covalent Bonds
23Double and Triple Covalent Bonds 8.2Double and Triple Covalent BondsCarbon dioxide gas is soluble in water and is used to carbonate many beverages. A carbon dioxide molecule has two carbon-oxygen double bonds.Carbon dioxide gas is soluble in water and is used to carbonate many beverages. A carbon dioxide molecule has two carbon–oxygen double bonds.
24Double and Triple Covalent Bonds 8.2Double and Triple Covalent BondsCarbon dioxide is an example of a triatomic molecule.Oxygen and nitrogen are the main components of Earth’s atmosphere. The oxygen molecule is an exception to the octet rule. It has two unpaired electrons. Three pairs of electrons are shared in a nitrogen molecule.
25Coordinate Covalent Bonds 8.2Coordinate Covalent BondsCoordinate Covalent BondsHow are coordinate covalent bonds different from other covalent bonds?
26Coordinate Covalent Bonds 8.2Coordinate Covalent BondsIn carbon monoxide, oxygen has a stable configuration but the carbon does not.
27Coordinate Covalent Bonds 8.2Coordinate Covalent BondsAs shown below, the dilemma is solved if the oxygen donates one of its unshared pairs of electrons for bonding.
28Coordinate Covalent Bonds 8.2Coordinate Covalent BondsA coordinate covalent bond is a covalent bond in which one atom contributes both bonding electrons.In a structural formula, you can show coordinate covalent bonds as arrows that point from the atom donating the pair of electrons to the atom receiving them.
29Coordinate Covalent Bonds 8.2Coordinate Covalent BondsIn a coordinate covalent bond, the shared electron pair comes from one of the bonding atoms.
30Coordinate Covalent Bonds 8.2Coordinate Covalent BondsA polyatomic ion, such as NH4+, is a tightly bound group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge and behaves as a unit.Most plants need nitrogen that is already combined in a compound to grow.The polyatomic ammonium ion (NH4), present in ammonium sulfate, is an important component of fertilizer for field crops, home gardens, and potted plants.
35for Conceptual Problem 8.2 Section AssessmentProblem-Solving 8.10 Solve Problem 10 with the help of an interactive guided tutorial.
36Bond Dissociation Energies 8.2Bond Dissociation EnergiesBond Dissociation EnergiesHow is the strength of a covalent bond related to its bond dissociation energy?
37Bond Dissociation Energies 8.2Bond Dissociation EnergiesThe energy required to break the bond between two covalently bonded atoms is known as the bond dissociation energy.A large bond dissociation energy corresponds to a strong covalent bond.
388.2ResonanceResonanceHow are oxygen atoms bonded in ozone?
398.2ResonanceOzone in the upper atmosphere blocks harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun. At lower elevations, it contributes to smog.Although ozone high above the ground forms a protective layer that absorbs ultraviolet radiation from the sun, at lower elevations ozone is a pollutant that contributes to smog.
408.2ResonanceThe actual bonding of oxygen atoms in ozone is a hybrid, or mixture, of the extremes represented by the resonance forms.
418.2ResonanceA resonance structure is a structure that occurs when it is possible to draw two or more valid electron dot structures that have the same number of electron pairs for a molecule or ion.
42Exceptions to the Octet Rule 8.2Exceptions to the Octet RuleExceptions to the Octet RuleWhat are some exceptions to the rule?
43Exceptions to the Octet Rule 8.2Exceptions to the Octet RuleThe octet rule cannot be satisfied in molecules whose total number of valence electrons is an odd number. There are also molecules in which an atom has fewer, or more, than a complete octet of valence electrons.
44Exceptions to the Octet Rule 8.2Exceptions to the Octet RuleTwo electron dot structures can be drawn for the NO2 molecule.
45Exceptions to the Octet Rule 8.2Exceptions to the Octet RuleNO2 is produced naturally by lightning strikes.Lightning is one means by which nitrogen and oxygen in the atmosphere produce nitrogen dioxide.
46Exceptions to the Octet Rule 8.2Exceptions to the Octet RuleThe electron dot structure for PCl5 can be written so that phosphorus has ten valence electrons.Phosphorus pentachloride, used as a chlorinating and dehydrating agent, and sulfur hexafluoride, used as an insulator for electrical equipment, are exceptions to the octet rule. Interpreting Diagrams How many valence electrons does the sulfur in sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 ) have for the structure shown in the figure?
488.2 Section Quiz.1. In covalent bonding, atoms attain the configuration of noble gases bylosing electrons.gaining electrons.transferring electrons.sharing electrons.
498.2 Section Quiz2. Electron dot diagrams are superior to molecular formulas in that theyshow which electrons are shared.indicate the number of each kind of atom in the molecule.show the arrangement of atoms in the molecule.are easier to write or draw.
508.2 Section Quiz3. Which of the following molecules would contain a bond formed when atoms share three pairs of electrons?Se2As2Br2Te2