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Ms McCann Environmental Science

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1 Ms McCann Environmental Science
October 2014 Ms McCann Environmental Science

2 September 29th Bell Ringer: List the FOUR layers of the atmosphere.
Objectives: Poster Presentations Review Activity

3 September 30th Bell Ringer:
In which sphere do all of the Earth’s ocean belong? Objectives: Complete Sphere Presentations Poster Wisdom Walk Ch 3 Test Carbon Cycle Labeling Sheet BioGeoChemical Cycles YouTube video?

4 October 1st Bell Ringer:
A nutrient cycle is also called a __________ cycle. (see p.83 in green textbook) Objectives: Carbon Cycle PowerPt Notes Add notes to the outline you made yesterday and get out your Carbon Cycle diagram Teach ‘how to’ Complete: Read p83-85 in green text outline, written on the board. Pass Back Graded Assignments (1st only)

5 October 2nd Bell Ringer: Why do plants undergo photosynthesis?
Objectives: Carbon Cycle Simulation Activity *If not complete, complete for HW. *Please check your carbon cycle diagram with the one posted to the front board.

6 October 3rd Bell Ringer:
What is the role of a decomposer within the Carbon Cycle? Objectives: *Hold on to the Carbon Cycle Simulation Sheet BioGeoChemical Cycles YouTube video **Please take out a sheet of paper for notes. Read ch 3-3 p83-89 and complete the guided reading. *If not completed in class, please come to office hours to use the book.

7 October 6th Bell Ringer:
How are the chemical equations of photosynthesis and respiration related? Objectives: Review 3-4 guided reading Carbon Forest Activity Carbon Molecule Journey Summary *Today is the last assignment for quarter 1. All missing work due by FRIDAY, 10/10!!

8 Carbon Forest Activity
All life is based on the element carbon. Carbon is the major chemical component of most organic matter, from fossil fuels to the complex molecules (DNA and RNA) that control genetic reproduction in organisms. Yet by weight, carbon is not one of the most abundant elements within the Earth's crust. In fact, the lithosphere is only 0.032% carbon by weight. In comparison, oxygen and silicon respectively make up 45.2% and 29.4% of the Earth's surface rocks.

9 Carbon is stored on our planet in the following major sinks:
as organic molecules in living and dead organisms found in the biosphere as the gas carbon dioxide in the atmosphere as organic matter in soils in the lithosphere as fossil fuels and sedimentary rock deposits such as limestone, dolomite and chalk in the oceans as dissolved atmospheric carbon dioxide and as calcium carbonate shells in marine organisms.

10 The Carbon Cycle

11 The Procedure There are six stations label around the room.
You will be randomly placed at one of the stations. Each student rolls the die or choose a number between 1 and 6, and then read the statement at their station corresponding to that number. Write on the lab sheet the current station, what happens to you based on their number, and where you will go next. When I call out “cycle,” you should go to the next station as directed on the card. If the directions have you stay at the same station, then you should either roll the die again or choose again a number between 1 and 6. We will repeat steps about ten more times or until most students have cycled through Tree Station at least once.

12 My Journey as a Carbon Atom
Write a brief story from a carbon atom’s point of view that describes the journey they just took through the carbon cycle. For example, a story might start as “I was a carbon atom in a tall tree. One day a fierce storm came, and knocked the tree over. It lay for a long time on the forest floor. As it decayed, I was released into the atmosphere….”

13 Further Thought and Discussion
Discuss the following: At which station did you spend the most time? At which station did you spend the least time? While each of your journeys was different, was there anything similar about them? At which stations can carbon be stored? At which stations is carbon released into the atmosphere? What are the different paths carbon might take after becoming a tree? Which paths release carbon quickly into the atmosphere, and which store carbon for a long period of time? - How does the carbon cycle help us understand the relation between forests and global climate change?

14 October 7th Bell Ringer:
What does the law of the conservation of matter state? Objectives Carbon molecule journey summary due Pass Back Graded Assignments Discuss Important Dates Nitrogen pre lab activity: p87 Continue the Biogeochemical Cycle Outline: Nitrogen is “C” on your outline. Nitrogen Cycle PowerPoint **

15 Nitrogen Cycle Pre Activity
Start on Page How do humans impact the Nitrogen Cycle? 2. What are the two ways in which nitrogen fixation can occur naturally? 3. Describe the role bacteria plays in the Nitrogen Cycle. Define the following: Nitrogen cycle nitrogen fixation nitrogen-fixing bacteria N2 nitrification denitrifying bacteria *Add the Nitrogen Cycle to the Biogeochemical Outline

16 October 8th Bell Ringer:
Explain what is eutrophication and how it can lead to hypoxia. Objectives: *First Period: Hand back Graded Assignments Reminder: You must ask me TODAY for missing assignments you wish to work on in class tomorrow!! BYOT contracts-Due Friday, 10/10! Complete Nitrogen PP *Nitrogen should be added to Outline, vocab and 3 Qs should be complete. Nitrogen Activity – on a separate sheet of paper On a separate sheet of paper, draw the Nitrogen cycle- be specific and detailed.

17 Nitrogen Cycle Activity Qs
4. Explain why the tropical forest has a more lush plant life than the tundra in regards to how fast things decompose. 5. Give a short explanation why the following human impacts have increased nitrogen in ecosystems. a) manure b) continual harvesting of soy beans (nodule containing legume plants) c) burning forests 6. Draw the Nitrogen cycle. Be sure to include nitrogen fixation, nitrification, denitrification, ammonia, N2, nitrate, lightning, and bacteria.

18 October 9th: SUB LESSON PLAN!
*No Bell Ringer Objective: Read the Water article and answer questions on a separate sheet of paper. *Copies didn’t arrive on Oct 9th – only made a class set. Students should not remove from class. 2. Complete: a. Nitrogen Diagram (any of the Nitrogen assignments) b. Read p63: The Dead Zone and write a paragraph stating which solution from p89 you feel would be the best and why. c. Work on any missing assignments! d. Draw the Water Cycle (p81) or Phosphorus Cycle (p86)

19 *BYOT contract due – No BYOT unless you turn in the contract!!
October 10th Bell Ringer: What are the two ways in which nitrogen fixation can occur naturally? Objectives: What should be complete by TODAY: Nitrogen Cycle outline ‘C’ Nitrogen Cycle Qs/vocab Nitrogen Cycle worksheet/diagram Water article questions *BYOT contract due – No BYOT unless you turn in the contract!! If you have completed all the Nitrogen Cycle Assignments: Continue Biogeochemical Outline: Phosphorus is letter ‘D’ on outline Dead Zone Activity – read p63 and write a paragraph detailing a solution **All first quarter work must be completed by the end of the day TODAY!

20 October 13th Bell Ringer: What do you think a ‘Dead Zone’ means?
Objective: Important Dates/Pass Back Graded Assignments Dead Zone Activity 3. Add the ‘D’ Phosphorus Cycle (p86) and the ‘E’ Water Cycle (p81) to the biogeochemical outline

21 Important Dates October 10th: ALL First Quarter assignments completed. October 13th: Second Quarter Assignments: Biogeochemcial Cycle Outline Carbon Cycle Diagram Carbon Forest Activity/paragraph Nitrogen Worksheet Water Article Questions *No Lunch Office Hours Today – due to training October 22nd: Biogeochemcial Cycle Test

22 The Dead Zone Activity 1. Read p63: The Dead Zone (7 minutes) 2. Write a paragraph describing a solution to the Dead Zone (see p89): (7 minutes) Sentence 1-Tell me which solution you are choosing. Sentence 2&3- Explain why you feel this is the best solution to the problem. Sentence 4-Conclusion sentence 3. Partner Work-handout/questions (15 minutes) –EACH person answers the questions on the BACK of their paragraph. Staple the two sheets together and place into the bell ringer tray Upon completion, read p86 (Phosphorus) and add ‘D’ to the Biogeochemcial Cycle Outline.

23 Dead Zone Partner Activity
With a partner, read the handout and answer these questions on the back of your paragraph: According to the bar graph, when did scientists begin taking measurements of the dead zone? What is the largest area that the dead zone has covered? What is the acceptable size of the dead zone area according to the Action Plan Goal? What information from the USGS has been used to determine the factors that affect the size of the dead zone? What information was learned? Does the existence of a dead zone in the Gulf of Mexico change what you think about the Big Question: “How do nonliving parts of the Earth’s systems provide the basic materials to support life?” Share your solutions to the Dead Zone with your partner. Together, determine the best solution to this issue. Explain the solution you and your partner determined to be the best solution. Please sit quietly until everyone has finished.

24 October 14th Bell Ringer:
What was your solution to improve the effects of the Dead Zone? Objectives: Note: If you did not complete the Dead Zone Activity, you must come to office hours this week! Biogeochemical Cycle Booklet Phosphorus PP w/notes 3. Follow-up Questions on Phosphorus Cycle -write the question and answer on NB paper 4. On the back of the PP notes, draw the Phosphorus Cycle 5. Add the ‘D’ Phosphorus Cycle (p86) 6. If time permits, add the ‘E’ Water Cycle (p81) to the biogeochemical outline and Diagram the Water Cycle (blue sheet) 7. PSAT assignment – read and highlight

25 Second Quarter Assignments:
Completed by Friday, October 17th: Biogeochemcial Cycle Outline Carbon Cycle Diagram – part of outline Carbon Forest Activity/paragraph Nitrogen Worksheet Nitrogen Cycle Diagram – part of outline Water Article Questions Dead Zone Activity Phosphorus Cycle Diagram/Questions Water Cycle Diagram Desalination Lab Test: Thursday, October 23rd

Staple in this order: 1.Carbon Forest Activity/paragraph 2. Nitrogen Worksheet 3. Water Article Questions 4. Dead Zone Activity Must complete by Friday, October 17th!

27 October 15th PSAT – 1st-5th 6th-7th: Biogeochemical Cycle Review Sheet

28 October 16th Bell Ringer:
Which of the biogeochemical cycles is the slowest cycle? 10/15: PSAT I will be lecturing and showing video MOST of class. Please take care of water/restroom needs NOW, as you will not be excused during class until I have finished. Objectives: Water Cycle PP w/notes - water cycle diagram Read p81 and add the water cycle to the outline ‘E’ Begin Water Cycle Desalination Lab (3 days) Day 1: PP, Explain Lab, Assign groups, Groups Brainstorm/Plan Groups must turn in ‘plant blueprints’ by the end of class

29 Match the process with the correct change in state or definition.
October 17th Bell Ringer: Use your Water Cycle Notes from yesterday: write the letter next to the number. Match the process with the correct change in state or definition. Evaporation Precipitation Transpiration Condensation Liquid to gas Gas vapor to liquid Liquid that returns to the earth’s surface Vapor that enters the atmosphere from the leaves of plants

30 October 17th Objectives:
Complete Water Cycle Outline (7 minutes)- DUE TODAY! 2. Second Quarter Assignments: 30pt Formative Grade Biogeochemcial Cycle Outline Cycle Diagrams: Carbon,Nitrogen,Phosphorus Drawing, Water Carbon Forest Activity/paragraph Nitrogen Worksheet Water Article Questions Dead Zone Activity Phosphorus Cycle PP Notes/Qs Water Cycle PP Notes 3. Desalination Lab Day 1: PP(7min)/video(2min), Explain Lab, Assign groups of 4, Groups Brainstorm/Plan *Groups must turn in ‘plant blueprints’ by the end of class

31 October 21st Bell Ringer: Explain the purpose of desalination?
Objective: Return Biogeochemical Packet (please check score and completion) HW: Biogeochemical Review Sheet–due 10/ 23 *6th/7th period received Wed. 10/15 Test on Friday, 10/24!! 2. Desalination Lab Day 2: Build It!

32 October 22nd Bell Ringer: List the 4 processes of the water cycle.
Objectives: Desalination Lab Day 3 – “Test It” Work on the Biogeochemical Test Review Sheet – due tomorrow!

33 October 23rd Bell Ringer: List one example of a carbon sink.
Objectives: Biogeochemical Cycle Review Each table will be a team that will discover 6 Qs. After 15 min, will share with class. Cycle Test tomorrow!! PLEASE turn in ANY assignment, regardless of completion, part of the cycle packet by tomorrow!

34 Water Cycle Evaporation (Transpiration via plants) ->
1. Draw a water cycle and include the processes of transpiration, precipitation, evaporation and condensation. Evaporation (Transpiration via plants) -> Condensation -> Precipitation -> Repeat  2. Describe transpiration – the release of water vapor by plants through their leaves 3. Describe precipitation – water returns from the atmosphere; ie: rain, snow, sleet, hail

35 Water Cycle Continued….
4. Describe evaporation - water moves from bodies of water and moist soil into the atmosphere; the conversion of liquid to a gas 5. Describe condensation- a change in state from a gas to a liquid 6. List several ways humans negatively affect the water cycle? Clearing plants = increase erosion, runoff, increase evaporation and decrease transpiration Spreading water onto fields = deplete surface & groundwater Release of pollutants = acidic precipitation Industry and irrigation = depletes groundwater

36 Carbon Cycle 7. Describe pure carbon. (Color, state of matter) – black, solid 8. What carbon compound is necessary for photosynthesis? Carbon dioxide (CO2) 9. What two substances are produced by photosynthesis? Oxygen and Sugar 10. How are humans contributing to the overload of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere? By extracting and burning fossil fuels; cutting and burning of forests 11. Describe how carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gasses affect the temperature of Earth. Protects the earth from the bitter cold of space; keeps the earth warm

37 Carbon Cycle Cont… 12. Describe the ways carbon dioxide gets into our atmosphere. Burning of wood and fossil fuels; cellular respiration; human exhaling  13. Describe the ways carbon dioxide is removed from our atmosphere. Photosynthesis, sediments (limestone and fossil fuels), oceans 14. What is happening to the overall amounts of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere? Increasing amounts; more carbon being released into atmosphere than what can be absorbed by plants

38 Nitrogen Cycle 15. What molecules in our bodies require nitrogen for their production? Essential for proteins which make DNA and RNA 16. What state of matter is atmospheric nitrogen? gas 17. What must happen to atmospheric nitrogen before it can be used as a nutrient by an organism? Nitrogen fixation must occur by a bacteria before it can be used. 18. How do humans get the nitrogen they need? Humans must eat plants directly or eat plant-eating animals.

39 Phosphorus Cycle 19. What molecules in our bodies require phosphorus for their production? Cell membranes, DNA and RNA 20. Why is phosphorus a limiting nutrient in so many ecosystems? Because most of it is bound up in rock. 21. What are common sources of phosphorus? Rocks, soil, sediments and oceans.

40 GENERAL 22. What affect does fertilizer have on nutrients in our ecosystem? Can increase the growth of algae, leading to eutrophication, hypoxia or a dead zone. 23. Define Eutrophication and what causes it. An overgrowth of primary producers (plants/algae) causes the amount of oxygen in a body of water to decrease, leading to hypoxia, eventually could lead to a dead zone. 24. What is the most abundant element in our atmosphere? Nitrogen 25. Define the Law of Conservation of Matter. Matter can be neither created nor destroyed, simply transformed.

41 Ecology is the study of the ecosystem.
October 24th Bell Ringer: copy the statement Ecology is the study of the ecosystem. Objectives: Biogeochemical Test LAST DAY to TURN IN Cycle Packet assignments!!! Begin The Study of Ecology Read p – Create a vocab chart: TERM -Definition Use in a Complete Sentence

42 October 27th Bell Ringer: NEW SHEET Define species (p101) and provide an example. Objective: 1. Ecosystem PP notes: Number paper Outdoor Classroom pre-Lab (we will be going outside tomorrow, please dress appropriately) *eco success 3. Complete ch 4-1 (p ) vocab chart – due tmrw

43 *Place stapled Ecology Packet
October 28th Bell Ringer: What is a population? Objective: Review Outdoor Classroom Pre-Lab Outdoor Classroom Lab *Place stapled Ecology Packet (Ch 4-1 Vocab Chart/Ecology PP notes/Outdoor Lab) into bell ringer tray.

44 Outdoor Classroom pre-Lab
A community is all of the populations within a particular area. An ecosystem is all of the living things and their physical environments within a particular area A population are members of a species that live in the same area at the same time. An abiotic factor is parts of the ecosystem that has never been living. A biotic factor is parts of the ecosystem that are living or used to be living.

45 6.c. Ecological Succession
Ecosystems undergo change over time. These changes are known as succession. For example, a forest that is clear cut will develop into a forest again if enough time is allowed for natural processes to occur.

46 6. a. Primary succession Primary ecosystem succession is when a community first forms in a newly created or exposed area such as a sand dune or bare rock surface, lava flow, or a new lake created by flooding. In a sense, this is as if the community forms from a “clean slate” ecologically speaking.

47 6. b. Secondary Succession
Secondary succession is when a community was disturbed by human or elemental forces. This form of succession tends to be much more rapid as some of the vital elements such as soil, nutrients and seeds are already present at the location at least to some extent. An example of this kind of succession is a forest recovering from a major forest fire or logging event.


49 Outdoor Classroom pre-Lab cont.
7. A resource is anything an organism needs: Nutrition Shelter Breeding sites Mates Oxygen/water 8. A habitat is the specific environment in which an organism lives.

50 October 29th Bell Ringer: Explain the difference between abiotic and biotic. Provide an example of each. Objectives: 1.“How much is an ecosystem worth?” Project – due on Friday! *Ecosystem Quiz on Friday, October 31st!

51 From the Ecological Society of America (ESA)
Have you ever considered that the cereal you eat is brought to you each morning by the wind, or that the glass of clear, cold, clean water drawn from your faucet may have been purified for you by a wetland or perhaps the root system of an entire forest? Trees in your front yard work to trap dust, dirt, and harmful gases from the air you breathe. The bright fire of oak logs you light to keep warm on cold nights and the medicine you take to ease the pain of an ailment come to you from Nature’s warehouse of services. Natural ecosystems perform fundamental life-support services upon which human civilization depends. Unless human activities are carefully planned and managed, valuable ecosystems will continue to be impaired or destroyed.

52 What are ecosystem services
What are ecosystem services? Ecosystem Services are the processes by which the environment produces resources that we often take for granted such as clean water, timber, and habitat for fisheries, and pollination of native and agricultural plants. Whether we find ourselves in the city or a rural area, the ecosystems in which humans live provide goods and services that are very familiar to us.

53 Ecosystems provide “services” that:
moderate weather extremes and their impacts disperse seeds mitigate drought and floods protect people from the sun’s harmful ultraviolet rays cycle and move nutrients protect stream and river channels and coastal shores from erosion detoxify and decompose wastes control agricultural pests maintain biodiversity generate and preserve soils and renew their fertility contribute to climate stability purify the air and water regulate disease carrying organisms pollinate crops and natural vegetation

54 What is an ecosystem? An ecosystem is a community of animals and plants interacting with one another and with their physical environment. Ecosystems include physical and chemical components, such as soils, water, and nutrients that support the organisms living within them. These organisms may range from large animals and plants to microscopic bacteria. Ecosystems include the interactions among all organisms in a given habitat. People are part of ecosystems. The health and wellbeing of human populations depends upon the services provided by ecosystems and their components — organisms, soil, water, and nutrients.

55 What are ecosystem services worth?
Natural ecosystems and the plants and animals within them provide humans with services that would be very difficult to duplicate. While it is often impossible to place an accurate monetary amount on ecosystem services, we can calculate some of the financial values. Many of these services are performed seemingly for “free,” yet are worth many trillions of dollars, for example:

56 Much of the Mississippi River Valley’s natural flood protection services were destroyed when adjacent wetlands were drained and channels altered. As a result, the 1993 floods resulted in property damages estimated at twelve billion dollars partially from the inability of the Valley to lessen the impacts of the high volumes of water. 80% of the world’s population relies upon natural medicinal products. Of the top 150 prescription drugs used in the U.S., 118 originate from natural sources: 74% from plants, 18% from fungi, 5% from bacteria, and 3% from one vertebrate (snake species). Nine of the top 10 drugs originate from natural plant products. Over 100,000 different animal species — including bats, bees, flies, moths, beetles, birds, and butterflies — provide free pollination services. One third of human food comes from plants pollinated by wild pollinators. The value of pollination services from wild pollinators in the U.S. alone is estimated at four to six billion dollars per year.

57 New York City is a case in point
New York City is a case in point. Before it became overwhelmed by agricultural and sewage runoff, the watershed of the Catskill Mountains provided New York City with water ranked among the best in the Nation by Consumer Reports. When the water fell below quality standards, the City investigated what it would cost to install an artificial filtration plant. The estimated price tag for this new facility was six to eight billion dollars, plus annual operating costs of 300 million dollars — a high price to pay for what once was free. New York City decided instead to invest a fraction of that cost ($660 million) in restoring the natural capital it had in the Catskills watershed. In 1997, the City raised an Environmental Bond Issue and is currently using the funds to purchase land and halt development in the watershed, to compensate property owners for development restrictions on their land, and to subsidize the improvement of septic systems.

58 How are ecosystem services “cut off”?
Ecosystem services are so fundamental to life that they are easy to take for granted and so large in scale that it is hard to imagine that human activities could destroy them. Nevertheless, ecosystem services are severely threatened through growth in the scale of human enterprise (population size, per-capita consumption, and effects of technologies to produce goods for consumption) a mismatch between short-term needs and long-term societal well-being

59 Many human activities disrupt, impair, or reengineer ecosystems every day including:
runoff of pesticides, fertilizers, and animal wastes pollution of land, water, and air resources introduction of non-native species overharvesting of fisheries destruction of wetlands erosion of soils deforestation urban sprawl

60 Ecology and ecosystem services
Ecologists work to help us understand the interconnection and interdependence of the many plant and animal communities within ecosystems. Although substantial understanding of many ecosystem services and the scientific principles underlying them already exists, there is still much to learn. The tradeoffs among different services within an ecosystem, the role of biodiversity in maintaining services, and the effects of long and short-term perturbations are just some of the questions that need to be further explored. The answers to such questions will provide information critical to the development of management strategies that will protect ecosystems and help maintain the provisions of the services upon which we depend.

61 Conclusion: The choices we make today in how we use land and water resources will have enormous consequences on the future sustainability of earth’s ecosystems and the services they provide.

62 How Much is An Ecosystem Worth?
Directions: (please pass around example) 1. Read the article about ecosystem services 2. Design a product that performs an ecosystem service 3. Create a brochure to sell your product that is COLORFUL with PICTURES Flap One: Name of product and picture Flap Two: What your ecosystem service is and why it is important (what does your product do?) Flap Three: What type of ecosystem is your product meant for and why? (How much money will you product save?) Flap Four: List the biotic and abiotic factors of the ecosystem (and how your product imitates them) Flap Five: Threats to the ecosystem service (why do we need your product?) Flap Six: Student Names and Roles in designing/creating

63 *Quiz tomorrow on the ecosystem!
October 30th Bell Ringer: What is an ecosystem? 10/27:Define species. 10/28:What is a population? 10/29: Explain the difference between biotic and abiotic factors; provide an example for each. Objectives: Continue working on “What is an Ecosystem Worth?” activity *Quiz tomorrow on the ecosystem!

64 OCTOBER 31st Bell Ringer: HAPPY HALLOWEEN!!!!
Describe the type of ecosystem do you live in? 10/27:Define species. 10/28:What is a population? 10/29: Explain the difference between biotic and abiotic factors; provide an example for each. 10/30: What is an ecosystem? Objectives: Please complete bell ringers from this week! Ecosystem Quiz Complete Project: “What is an ecosystem worth?”

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