Presentation on theme: "NUTRITIONAL DISORDERS. COMMON CORE STANDARDS ADDRESSED! CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.11-12.2 Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary."— Presentation transcript:
COMMON CORE STANDARDS ADDRESSED! CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary that makes clear the relationships among the key details and ideas. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, as well as in words) in order to address a question or solve a problem.
BELL WORK! What are the most common causes of infertility in domestic farm animals? List three factors that might cause abortions in livestock. Why is fresh water so important to livestock? Why is an adequate energy level so important to animals?
TERMS! Amino Acids Carbohydrates Dehydration Energy Fats Minerals Protein Roughage Vitamins
INTRODUCTION Just like humans, animals nee proper nutrition for health, energy and maintenance. In order to maintain an animals health and appearance the owner must be able to recognize health problems and know the corrective action to take. The type of nutrients that an animal needs will depend on the type of animal and its age. Vitamins, protein, minerals and carbohydrates along with water need to provided to livestock in the needed quantities to ensure proper production levels.
PROPER NUTRITION REQUIREMENTS The most important part of every animals diet is water. Water is continually lost in urine, feces and by perspiration in some animals. Water makes up 60 % of and animals body and must be replenished and available at all times. A health disorder such as diarrhea only heightens the animals need for water. There area health disorders which will increase urine output, again increasing the need for water.
PROPER NUTRITION REQUIREMENTS Water requirements vary from one species to another depending on their digestive system, stage of development and diet fed. Ruminants especially cattle have high water requirements because of the fermentation process in the rumen. Lactating cows especially dairy cattle again have increased water requirements.
ENERGY Energy is needed by animals for growth, movement and reproduction. Energy is supplied to the animal in the form of protein, carbohydrates and fats. The breakdown of these feed ingredients supplies the animal with energy. Cattle, sheep, goats, wildlife and horses usually get enough energy from high quality roughages. Feeding of supplemental grain may be needed to maximize growth. Proteins are also a source of amino acids that are needed for cell function in the body.
MINERALS Minerals are important as they serve as the foundation for skeletal structure. Phosphorus aids in the following: Bone formation Energy compound in cells Calcium has a number of functions; Forms bone Maintains cell performance Required for muscle contraction Required for blood clotting
MINERALS Quality pastures that have been fertilized will yield healthy plants to maintain the mineral balance Large range areas in New Mexico may have plants deficient in minerals. It would be a good idea to supplemental feed mineral to livestock in open range situations. Mineral supplements provide calcium, phosphorus, salt and essential trace minerals such as magnesium, potassium, copper, cobalt and iodine. Specific regions of the country may need additional minerals. Small animal foods have minerals added to the ration formulation.
FEEDING MINERAL SUPPLEMENTS!
VITAMINS Vitamins are essential for proper cell formation. Vitamins may be formed in the body but must be supplemented to maintain proper levels. Quality roughages generally supply enough vitamin A, D, and E for ruminant animals. Ruminants also form vitamins B, C and K from within the body. Small pets the consume table scraps often need supplemental vitamin. Vitamin D is formed in the skin by exposure to sunlight and is not generally supplemented. Vitamins may be added to supplemental feeding programs for all animals as a part of the daily rations.
PROTEIN DEFICIENCIES Protein in the blood maintains the fluid balance within the body of an animal. Protein deficiencies in animals will result in an individual that appears to be underweight and in severe cases weak because of poor muscle structure. In severe bovine cases fluid will accumulate from the throat to the underline.
PHOSPHORUS DEFICIENCY Good pasture and commercial feeds will generally provide adequate phosphorus for the diet. Phosphorus is essential for organ structure, energy utilization and nutrient transport. Animals suffering a phosphorus will have an unthrifty appearance, and suffer from lameness. Pica is the continued eating of non nutritive substances indicating a deficiency. Pica is not uncommon in animals suffering a phosphorus deficiency.
CALCIUM DEFICIENCIES! Calcium deficiencies are not uncommon in animals especially lactating females. Lactation pulls calcium from bone storage and the diet. A drop in blood calcium causes problems with muscles and nerves. A calcium deficiency in a lactating cow is known as milk fever. Symptoms would include; Depression and loss of appetite. Muscle tremors and grinding of teeth In severe cases, muscle tremors will lead to paralysis. Lactating dogs will tremble, pant and be very nervous, followed by convulsions and death. Direct injection of calcium is the best treatment.
MAGNESIUM DEFICIENCIES Magnesium deficiencies are common with cattle more than other species. This disorder is know as “Grass Tetany”. Cattle grazing wheat in New Mexico would be most affected. Fertilizer applied to pastures contains nitrogen and potassium which will interfere with the absorption of magnesium. Affected animals are excitable, run about, and suffer stiff muscle convulsions followed by death. In severe cases direct injection of magnesium is needed to save the animal. Supplemental feeding mixtures containing magnesium will generally control the problem.
VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY! Animals fed commercial feed seldom suffer from a vitamin A deficiency. The disorder is more common in animals on pasture, especially in areas suffering from drought. The initial symptoms of the disorder are skin and eye problems. Extreme symptoms would include; Poor night vision Weak newborn animals Retained placenta Abortions
BLOAT! Ruminant animals remove gases that are produced in the rumen as a result of feed fermentation by belching. Legume roughages and finely ground feed may cause bloat. If gases are trapped in the rumen it will enlarge putting pressure on the lungs and prevents the animal from breathing properly. The results unless treated is the suffocation of the animal. Trapped gases must be released by drugs, passing a hose down the animals throat into the rumen or in severe cases puncturing the rumen through the abdomen wall.
COLIC IN HORSES! Intestinal movement in horses may trap gas and cause it to build up in the intestines. The gas build up causes intense pain as the intestines stretch and swell. Colic may be caused by dietary changes, foreign objects, and disease. A horse with colic will be in pain, roll frequently, kick and may perspire. A laxative may help, in severe cases surgery is required.
DEFICIENCIES IN CATS! Cats require the amino acid taurine. Taurine is available in commercially prepared cat food. Cats that are not fed properly may develop eye problems followed by blindness and heart problem.
FOUNDER IN CATTLE AND HORSES! Improper feeding of horses and cattle can produce bacterial toxins that interfere with circulation to the hoof. Founder will result in lameness, pain and, inflammation. Severe cases will result in separation of the hoof from the tissue beneath it. The cause of founder is “improper feeding”.
INCREASING NUTRITIONAL NEEDS! Animals that area placed under stress will need increased nutrition, generally supplied by supplemental feeding; Extreme cold increases the need for high energy feeds Diseases will reduce feed efficiency Parasites reduce feed efficiency by impacting digestion Pregnancy followed by lactation will increase nutrient needs