Presentation on theme: "Plant Nutrition. Where do Plants get their nutrients?"— Presentation transcript:
Where do Plants get their nutrients?
PLANT: A SUGAR FACTORY
NUTRIENTS AVAILABILITY AND SOIL The relative availability of nutrients to plant roots depends on the pH level of the soil.
Plant Nutrients Content in % Compared to Nitrogen
Average Composition of Plant
VISUAL SYMPTOMS ON LEAVES When inspecting plants for symptoms of nutrient disorders, compare plants displaying symptoms with normal ones and examine new and older leaves. OLDEST LEAVES: nutrient deficiencies generally appear first in the oldest leaves when nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium are limiting. These nutrients move from one part of the plant to another as needed. YOUNGER LEAVES AND TERMINAL BUDS: show a deficiency when sulfur, iron, calcium, zinc copper, boron, manganese or chlorine are limiting. These nutrients do not readily move about in the plant.
Nutrients Deficiency Symptoms on Leaves The most common symptoms of nutrient deficiency are stunted growth and leaf discoloration. The position of the symptoms (distal, basal or intermediate) depends on the mobility of the nutrient inside the plant (young leaves competing with oldest leaves)
Nutrients Removal: Apple N (KG)P (KG)K (KG)Mg (Ca)Ca (KG) Nutrient removed per ton apple 0.50.11.10.05 Nutrient removal at 50 tons/ha 255552.5 Nutrient incorporated into trees/ha 20415245 Total nutrient consumed 50t/ha 459704.547.5
Nitrogen Nitrogen is a building block of plant protein. It is an integral part of chlorophyll and is a component of amino acids, nucleic acids and coenzymes. Most nitrogen in the soil is tied up in organic matter. It is taken up by plants as nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) ions from inorganic nitrate and ammonium compounds. These compounds can enter the soil as a result of bacterial action (nitrogen fixation), application of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer, or conversion of organic matter into ammonium and nitrate compounds. Not all nitrates in the soil are taken up by plants. Nitrates can be leached beyond the root zone in sandy soils or converted to nitrogen gas in wet, flooded soils. Nitrogen fixation (from atmosphere) by soil microbes immobilizes nitrogen, making in available for later use by plants.
Most plants depend on bacteria to supply nitrogen
Phosphorus Plants use phosphorus to form the nucleic acids DNA and RNA and to store and transfer energy. Phosphorus promotes early plant growth and root formation through its role in the division and organization of cells. Phosphorus is essential to flowering and fruiting and to the transfer of hereditary traits. Phosphorus is adsorbed by plants as H2PO4-,HPO4-2 or PO-3, depending upon soil pH. The mobility of phosphorus in soil is low, and deficiencies are common in cool, wet soils. Phosphorus should be applied to fields and gardens before planting and should be incorporated into the soil. This is especially important for perennial crops. Application rates should be based on soil testing.
P Deficiencies Alfalfa Rice Corn Wheat
P Deficiency in Maize and Grape
Potassium Potassium is necessary to plants for translocation of sugars and for starch formation. It is important for efficient use of water through its role in opening and closing small apertures (stomata) on the surface of leaves. Potassium increases plant resistance to diseases and assists in enzyme activation and photosynthesis. It also increases the size and quality of fruits and improves winter hardiness. Plants take up potassium in the form of potassium ions (K+). It is relatively immobile in soils but can leach in sandy soils. Potassium fertilizer should be incorporated into the soil at planting or before. Application rates should be based on a soil test.
K Deficiencies Grape Alfalfa Corn
Calcium Calcium provides a building block (calcium pectate) for cell walls and membranes and must be present forthe formation of new cells. It is a constituent of important plant carbohydrates, such as starch and cellulose. Calcium promotes plant vigor and rigidity and is important to proper root and stem growth. Plants adsorb calcium in the form of the calcium ion (Ca+). Calcium needs can be only determined by soil test. In mostcases calcium requirements are metby liming the soil. Potatoes are an exception; use gypsum (calcium sulfate) on potatoes to avoid scab disease if calcium is needed. Gypsum provides calciumto the soil but does not raise the pHlevel ofthe soil. Keeping pH low helps prevent growth of the bacteriathat cause scab disease.
Magnesium Magnesium is a component of the chlorophyll molecule and is therefore essential for photosynthesis. Magnesium serves as an activator for manyplant enzymesrequiredfor sugar metabolism and movement and for growth processes. Plants take up magnesium as the Mg+2 ion.
Magnesium Deficiencies Maize Cotton
Zinc Zinc is an essential component of several enzymes in plants. It controls the synthesis of indoleacetic acid (ANA), an important plant growth regulator, and it is involved in the production of chlorophyll and protein. Zinc is taken up by plants as the zinc ion (Zn+2). Zinc deficiencies are more likely to occur in sandy soils that are lowin organic matter. High soil pH, as inhigh-limesoils, thesolubilityof zinc decreases and it becomes less available. Zinc and phosphorus have antagonistic effects in the soil. Therefore zinc also becomes less available in soils that are high in phosphorus. Wet and cold soil conditions can cause zinc deficiency because of slow root growth and slow release of zinc from organic matter.
Zinc Deficiencies in Apple
Iron Iron is taken up by plantsas ferrous ion (Fe+2). Iron is required for the formation of chlorophyll in plant cells. It serves as an activator for biochemical processes such as respiration, photosynthesis and symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Turf, ornamentals and certain trees are especially susceptible to iron deficiency (Quince, Peach, Kiwi) Symptoms of iron deficiency can occur on soils withpH greater than 7.0. Specific needs for iron can be determined by soil test, tissue test and visual symptoms.
Mycorrhizae Most plants have mycorrhizae
Some Plants are Parasitic Dodder on Pickleweed Mistletoe on an Oak
Genetic Engineering There are two main techniques used:
Products of Plant Biotechnology Delayed ripening tomatoes Herbicide resistant canola, soybeans, cotton, and other crops Insect resistant corn, potatoes, and other crops Golden Rice (vitamin A and beta-carotene enriched)
Plants have hormones Hormones
Plant Hormones What is a hormone? It must meet these criteria: –An endogenous organic compound –Active at very low concentrations –Produced in one tissue –Transported from the site of synthesis to the tissue in which it acts –Affects growth, development and physiological responses (it is not a nutrient or vitamin)
Auxin Controls cell elongation and expansion Involved in phototropic and gravitropic responses –growth of shoots towards light –downward growth of roots (response to gravity) Suppresses growth of axillary buds Stimulates root initiation and growth Stimulates fruit growth
More phototropism experiments
Effect of Auxin
How does Auxin work?
Terminal Bud Removal
Branching of shoots Where do branches come from? –Develop from axillary buds –Buds are present within leaf axils on the stem (stems have buds)
Branching of shoots Axillary buds contain a meristem that is usually inactive –apical dominance growth at the apex suppresses growth of lateral shoots –Why are axillary buds normally dormant? Active apical bud Dormant axillary buds
Branching of shoots Auxin is produced in shoot apex and transported down the plant stem –The concentration of auxin is high close to the shoot apex –Auxin concentration is lower in tissues further away from the apex Auxin produced in shoot apex High [auxin] Low [auxin]
Branching of shoots High concentrations of auxin suppress growth of axillary buds near the apex Further away from the apex, where the auxin concentration is lower, growth of axillary buds is not inhibited These buds develop and grow, forming branches Auxin produced in shoot apex High [auxin] Low [auxin]
Branching of shoots The strength of apical dominance varies among plant species –Strong apical dominance results in plants with a dominant primary shoot
Branching of shoots The strength of apical dominance varies among plant species –Weak apical dominance leads to a more branched plant form
Pinching promotes branching Pinching removes the apical meristem, the source of auxin With no auxin coming from the apex, axillary buds develop giving rise to a bushier plant Apical bud is removed Auxin is not present Axillary buds develop
Tree topping - a (bad) example of loss of apical dominance Tree topping removes the shoot apex/apices Axillary buds grow and develop into long, weak sprouts Trees that are topped are permanently damaged and lose much visual appeal
Effect of Auxin
Synthetic auxins: practical applications Stimulate rooting of cuttings in plant propagation Control fruit set - the number of fruit that develop after pollination 2,4-D, a synthetic auxin, is used as a herbicide to kill dicot weeds in lawns and cereal crops (monocot plants)
Cytokinins When a terminal bud is removed, the inhibitory effect of auxin on the lateral buds is removed, and the stimulating effect of cytokinins activates the axillary buds
Branching of roots Branch roots are initiated in the pericycle Layer of cells between the endodermis and vascular cylinder
Secondary growth Increased diameter of stems and roots Primarily due to activity of the cambium –Layer of meristem cells between the phloem and xylem
Secondary growth In woody plants, division of cells in the cambium gives rise to a new layer of xylem cells each year Xylem becomes lignified and permanent, visible as annual growth rings
Secondary growth Phloem is not a permanent tissue but is replaced each year Cambium provides cells for new phloem tissue
Manipulating cytokinins Promotes shoot growth in tissue culture Used to alter fruit shape
Gibberellins (GA) Stimulate stem elongation –many dwarf varieties are gibberellin-deficient or unable to respond to gibberellin Control metabolism of stored reserves during seed germination
Foolish Seedling Is a condition found in rice plants where they grow tall and weak, often falling over and not producing any rice. It is caused by a fungus of Giberella sp.
Gibberellins They are produced in the tips of shoots and roots, young leaves and embryos.
Manipulating gibberellins Height control - keeping plants small –flowering pot plants, e.g. Easter lily –bedding plants Increasing size of grapes by making looser bunches (Thompson seedless) Promotes desired elongated shape of 'Red Delicious' apples
Abscisic Acid (ABA) Stimulates closure of stomata Promotes maturation and dormancy of seeds Inhibits seed germination Regulates many responses to adverse environmental conditions –Plants under stress frequently have elevated levels of abscisic acid
Ethylene Regulates ripening of many fruits Controls senescence of many flowers Triggers abscission of leaves and fruits Increases proportion of female flowers in cucurbits (cucumber, zucchini, pumpkin) Regulates shoot growth during germination
Ethylene Causes fruit to ripen.
Manipulating ethylene Ethylene application –Stimulates flowering (pineapples) –Initiates ripening (bananas, tomatoes) –Promotes fruit drop (cherries) Ethylene inhibition –Delays ripening (long term apple storage) –Delays flower senescence (silver treatment of cut flowers)
Summary Growth results from –Cell division –Expansion or elongation –Differentiation Growth in plants occurs in specialized areas –Meristems are the sites of cell division and are the source of new cells for plant growth
Summary Cell expansion and differentiation occur in regions behind meristem Hormones play critical roles in plant growth Horticulturists control the shape and form of plants by manipulating growth and development
More Uses of Plant Hormones
Gravitropism Refers to the growth of plants in response to gravity
Photoperiod and Flowering
Effect of Red and Far Red Light
Manipulating plant growth: Pruning Fruit trees are pruned to develop an efficient structure to bear fruit and to maximize interception of light before pruningafter pruning
Manipulating plant growth: Training Plants are trained for both decorative and practical reasons
Manipulating plant growth: Shaping Trees and shrubs are shaped for commercial and aesthetic reasons Christmas treesTopiary
Two processes at work in plant growth At the cellular level there are two processes that contribute to plant growth Cell division –The source of new cells for growth of an organ or tissue division
Two processes at work in plant growth Cell enlargement –An increase in the volume of a cell The combined effects of both processes lead to the growth of plant organs and to the overall increase in size of a plant enlargement
Primary Growth Growth that leads to increased height of shoots or length of roots Growth occurs at the apices of these organs Cells in the apical meristems divide and provide the supply of cells for growth
Cell differentiation As cells “move away” from the apex they differentiate into specialized types of cells Every cell has the genetic potential to develop into any of the specialized cell types in a plant
Differentiation Differentiated cells don’t normally switch to another cell type After plant cells differentiate they are fixed in place –surrounded by rigid cell walls, glued together
Manipulating plant hormones Horticulturists use synthetic hormones, hormone analogs and inhibitors of hormone action to manipulate many aspects of plant growth and development These compounds are called plant growth regulators