Carbohydrates are energy-rich compounds made from carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (they store energy) Cells use carbohydrates to get and store energy. Carbohydrates add structure to plants (cellulose) Carbohydrates are also called sugars or starches.
Plant cells store energy as starch. Rice, potatoes, and wheat are plant starches.
FUNCTIONQuick and short term energy FOUND INBreads, Pastas, Potatoes, Corn STRUCTURE (1:2:1 ratio) 1 carbon:2 hydrogen:1 oxygen) Contain Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen (CHO) Unique because they always have two hydrogen for every one oxygen (hydrate-like water H 2 0) MONOSACCHARIDE EXAMPLES -- glucose, dextrose Glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) DISACCHARIDE EXAMPLES -- sucrose (plain sugar, lactose (milk sugar Lactose (milk sugar) Maltose (malt sugar-in grain), Sucrose (made of fructose & maltose combined-in sugar cane) (C 12 H 22 O 11 ) POLYSACCHARIDE EXAMPLES -- potatoes, bread, grains, corn 100 to 1000 monosaccharides joined Starch-how carbohydrates are stored in plants Glycogen-how carbohydrates are stored in animals Cellulose-found in plant cell walls; animals cannot digest (Fiber)
Lipids are made by cells to store energy for long periods of time. Used to make membranes in cells. Lipids include fats, oils, and waxes. Can you think of examples of lipids in plants or animals?
FUNCTIONLong term energy storage Insulate against heat loss Protective cushion around organs FOUND INFatty foods, butter, margarine, cooking oils STRUCTUREContain Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen (on occasion other elements) Glycerol (backbone 3 Carbons with - OH groups) and fatty acid chains Don’t dissolve in water FATS and OILS (Triglycerides)One glycerol with 3 fatty acid tail PHOSPHOLIPIDS Make up cell membranes contain C,H, O and phosphorus (2 fatty acid tails) WAXES Only 1 fatty acid tail with alcohol attached; protective coating on fruits etc. STEROIDSIncludes cholesterol, female and male sex hormone
Proteins are very large molecules made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur. Protein molecules are made of chains of smaller molecules called amino acids. Control structure & metabolism of cells
FUNCTIONBuilding blocks of living materials; compose structural parts such as keratin in hair and nails, antibodies, cartilage, bones, ligaments and enzymes (compounds that speed up reactions) FOUND INMeat, Eggs and Cheese STRUCTUREMuch larger, more complex than carbohydrates and lipids. Contain Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen & Nitrogen. BUILDING BLOCKSAmino Acids (There are 20 different amino acids) PEPTIDE BONDS Hold amino acids together (dipeptides, tripeptides, polypeptides) DENATURATION When proteins are exposed to extreme changes in pH, temperature etc. they lose their shape and can no longer function.
Nucleic acids are compounds made of long, repeating chains called nucleotides. DNA is a nucleic acid that contains the information cells need to make all of their proteins. DNA is the “blueprint” for living organisms.
FUNCTIONImportant for growth & reproduction of cells, contains the genetic code (what genes are made from) FOUND INGenes – 2 types DNA and RNA STRUCTURESugar (deoxyribose or ribose), phosphate, nitrogen bases BUILDING BLOCKSNucleotides ATP A nucleic acid that is made in the cell’s mitochondria. Glucose is converted into ATP. SHAPE DNA is known for its twisted ladder shape
Some scientists refer to DNA as the “blueprint” for life. What is a blueprint and why might scientists use this “analogy”?
WHAT DO YOU KNOW?
NOTICE: C,H,O and the 2:1 ratio of H to O
NOTICE: the twisted shape of DNA
NOTICE: The Glycerol back bone and fatty acid tails
NOTICE: The amino acid monomers
NOTICE: The phospate, sugar and base
NOTICE: The nitrogen and R- group
FRONT SIDE OF TABS: Tab A 1. Label the tab CARBOHYDRATE (BLUE). 2. Write a basic description. 3. Sketch and color a GLUCOSE molecule TAB B 1. Label the tab LIPID (GREEN) 2. List what lipids include. 3. Sketch and label a TRIGLYCERIDE molecule. TAB C 1. Label the tab PROTEIN (RED) 2. Write a basic description. 3. Sketch and color an AMINO ACID TAB D 1. Label the tab NUCLEIC ACID (PURPLE) 2. Write a basic description. 3. Sketch and color a NUCLEOTIDE BACK SIDE OF TABS: TAB A 1. Give 2 FUNCTIONS OF CARBOHYDRATES 2. List 4 EXAMPLES OF CARBOHYDRATES TAB B 1. Give 2 FUNCTIONS OF LIPID 2. List 4 EXAMPLES OF LIPIDS TAB C 1. Give 4 FUNCTIONS OF PROTEIN 2. List 2 EXAMPLES OF PROTEINS TAB D 1. Give 2 FUNCTIONS OF NUCLEIC ACIDS 2. List 2 EXAMPLES OF NUCLEIC ACIDS MACROMOLECULE FOLDABLE Fold and cut a piece of paper as shown below to make 4 tabs. Hamburger-fold Then, fold this in half a piece of paper. to make creases for flaps. Next. Open the paper up and Cut along the creases fold the edges to the center.to make flaps. ON THE INSIDE CENTER SECTION, write this heading at the top of the page: “COMPOUNDS IN A PERSON”. Draw a human, and show where/how the 4 macromolecules are used in the body. On the back of the Foldable, write your name and class period. Below your name and class period, write and define the following terms: 1. POLYMER (also – draw and label a diagram) 2. MONOMER (also – draw and label a diagram) A B C D