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Presentation on theme: "BioMOLECULES THE STUFF OF LIFE."— Presentation transcript:


2 Biomolecules Organic molecules made up of: Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen
Oxygen and sometimes Phosphorus

3 LATIN 101 Poly = Many Mono = One Hydro = Water (actually Greek)
Synthesis = to make or form Lysis = loosen; break apart Lipos = fat

4 Carbon compounds and cells
Life as we know it is carbon-based. A carbon atom can form chemical bonds with other carbon atoms in long chains or rings.

5 Carbon compounds and cells
Carbon compounds in living things include: carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids.

95% of all compounds are organic Example: Glucose C6H12O6


City Building Brick Cell Organelle Macromolecule

9 Polymers – large organic molecules made of smaller parts known as monomers (Building blocks of polymers)

10 FOUR MACROMoleculeS of LIFE
POLYMER MONOMER Carbohydrates (Polysaccharides) Monosaccharides (simple sugars) Lipids (e.g. fats) Glycerol and Fatty Acids Protein Amino Acids Nucleic Acids Nucleotides

11 CARBOHYDRATES Carbohydrates are energy-rich compounds made from
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (they store energy) Cells use carbohydrates to get and store energy. Carbohydrates add structure to plants (cellulose) Carbohydrates are also called sugars or starches.

12 Carbohydrates Plant cells store energy as starch.
Rice, potatoes, and wheat are plant starches.

13 CARBOHYDRATES FUNCTION Quick and short term energy FOUND IN
Breads, Pastas, Potatoes, Corn STRUCTURE (1:2:1 ratio) 1 carbon:2 hydrogen:1 oxygen) Contain Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen (CHO) Unique because they always have two hydrogen for every one oxygen (hydrate-like water H20) MONOSACCHARIDE EXAMPLES -- glucose, dextrose Glucose (C6H12O6) DISACCHARIDE EXAMPLES -- sucrose (plain sugar, lactose (milk sugar Lactose (milk sugar) Maltose (malt sugar-in grain), Sucrose (made of fructose & maltose combined-in sugar cane) (C12H22O11) POLYSACCHARIDE EXAMPLES -- potatoes, bread, grains, corn 100 to 1000 monosaccharides joined Starch-how carbohydrates are stored in plants Glycogen-how carbohydrates are stored in animals Cellulose-found in plant cell walls; animals cannot digest (Fiber)

14 LIPIDS Lipids are made by cells to store energy for long periods of time. Used to make membranes in cells. Lipids include fats, oils, and waxes. Can you think of examples of lipids in plants or animals?

15 LIPIDS “Lipos-FAT” FUNCTION Long term energy storage
Insulate against heat loss Protective cushion around organs FOUND IN Fatty foods, butter, margarine, cooking oils STRUCTURE Contain Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen (on occasion other elements) Glycerol (backbone 3 Carbons with -OH groups) and fatty acid chains Don’t dissolve in water FATS and OILS (Triglycerides) One glycerol with 3 fatty acid tail PHOSPHOLIPIDS Make up cell membranes contain C,H, O and phosphorus (2 fatty acid tails) WAXES Only 1 fatty acid tail with alcohol attached; protective coating on fruits etc. STEROIDS Includes cholesterol, female and male sex hormone Point out that while lipids are made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen that the hydrogen and oxygen are not in a 2:1 ratio like carbohydrates.

16 PROTEINS Proteins are very large molecules made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur. Protein molecules are made of chains of smaller molecules called amino acids. Control structure & metabolism of cells

17 PROTEINS FUNCTION Building blocks of living materials; compose structural parts such as keratin in hair and nails, antibodies, cartilage, bones, ligaments and enzymes (compounds that speed up reactions) FOUND IN Meat, Eggs and Cheese STRUCTURE Much larger, more complex than carbohydrates and lipids . Contain Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen & Nitrogen. BUILDING BLOCKS Amino Acids (There are 20 different amino acids) PEPTIDE BONDS Hold amino acids together (dipeptides, tripeptides, polypeptides) DENATURATION When proteins are exposed to extreme changes in pH, temperature etc. they lose their shape and can no longer function.

18 NUCLEIC ACIDS Nucleic acids are compounds made of long, repeating chains called nucleotides. DNA is a nucleic acid that contains the information cells need to make all of their proteins. DNA is the “blueprint” for living organisms.

19 Nucleic acids FUNCTION
Important for growth & reproduction of cells, contains the genetic code (what genes are made from) FOUND IN Genes – 2 types DNA and RNA STRUCTURE Sugar (deoxyribose or ribose), phosphate, nitrogen bases BUILDING BLOCKS Nucleotides ATP A nucleic acid that is made in the cell’s mitochondria. Glucose is converted into ATP. SHAPE DNA is known for its twisted ladder shape

20 Nucleotide – monomer of nucleic acids

21 DNA Some scientists refer to DNA as the “blueprint” for life.
What is a blueprint and why might scientists use this “analogy”?


23 Am I a Carbohydrate, nucleic acid, Protein or lipid?
NOTICE: C,H,O and the 2:1 ratio of H to O

24 Am I a Carbohydrate, nucleic acid, Protein or lipid?
NOTICE: the twisted shape of DNA

25 Am I a Carbohydrate, nucleic acid, Protein or lipid?
NOTICE: The Glycerol back bone and fatty acid tails

26 am I a Carbohydrate, nucleic acid, Protein or lipid?
NOTICE: The amino acid monomers

27 Am I a Carbohydrate, nucleic acid, Protein or lipid?

28 Am I a Carbohydrate, nucleic acid, Protein or lipid?

29 Am I a Carbohydrate, nucleic acid, Protein or lipid?

30 Am I a Carbohydrate, nucleic acid, Protein or lipid?

31 Am I a Carbohydrate, nucleic acid, Protein or lipid?
NOTICE: The phospate, sugar and base

32 Am I a Carbohydrate, nucleic acid, Protein or lipid?
NOTICE: The nitrogen and R-group

Fold and cut a piece of paper as shown below to make 4 tabs. Hamburger-fold Then, fold this in half a piece of paper to make creases for flaps. Next. Open the paper up and Cut along the creases fold the edges to the center. to make flaps. A B C D FRONT SIDE OF TABS: Tab A 1. Label the tab CARBOHYDRATE (BLUE). 2. Write a basic description. 3. Sketch and color a GLUCOSE molecule TAB B 1. Label the tab LIPID (GREEN) 2. List what lipids include. 3. Sketch and label a TRIGLYCERIDE molecule. TAB C 1. Label the tab PROTEIN (RED) 3. Sketch and color an AMINO ACID TAB D 1. Label the tab NUCLEIC ACID (PURPLE) 3. Sketch and color a NUCLEOTIDE BACK SIDE OF TABS: TAB A 1. Give 2 FUNCTIONS OF CARBOHYDRATES 2. List 4 EXAMPLES OF CARBOHYDRATES TAB B 1. Give 2 FUNCTIONS OF LIPID 2. List 4 EXAMPLES OF LIPIDS  TAB C 1. Give 4 FUNCTIONS OF PROTEIN 2. List 2 EXAMPLES OF PROTEINS  TAB D 1. Give 2 FUNCTIONS OF NUCLEIC ACIDS 2. List 2 EXAMPLES OF NUCLEIC ACIDS ON THE INSIDE CENTER SECTION, write this heading at the top of the page: “COMPOUNDS IN A PERSON”. Draw a human, and show where/how the 4 macromolecules are used in the body. On the back of the Foldable, write your name and class period. Below your name and class period, write and define the following terms: 1. POLYMER (also – draw and label a diagram) 2. MONOMER (also – draw and label a diagram)


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