9Polymers – large organic molecules made of smaller parts known as monomers (Building blocks of polymers)
10FOUR MACROMoleculeS of LIFE POLYMERMONOMERCarbohydrates (Polysaccharides)Monosaccharides (simple sugars)Lipids (e.g. fats)Glycerol and Fatty AcidsProteinAmino AcidsNucleic AcidsNucleotides
11CARBOHYDRATES Carbohydrates are energy-rich compounds made from carbon, hydrogen, andoxygen(they store energy)Cells use carbohydratesto get and store energy.Carbohydrates addstructure to plants (cellulose)Carbohydrates are also called sugars or starches.
12Carbohydrates Plant cells store energy as starch. Rice, potatoes, and wheat are plant starches.
13CARBOHYDRATES FUNCTION Quick and short term energy FOUND IN Breads, Pastas, Potatoes, CornSTRUCTURE(1:2:1 ratio)1 carbon:2 hydrogen:1 oxygen)Contain Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen (CHO) Unique because they always have two hydrogen for every one oxygen (hydrate-like water H20)MONOSACCHARIDE EXAMPLES -- glucose, dextroseGlucose (C6H12O6)DISACCHARIDE EXAMPLES-- sucrose (plain sugar,lactose (milk sugarLactose (milk sugar)Maltose (malt sugar-in grain), Sucrose (made of fructose & maltose combined-in sugar cane)(C12H22O11)POLYSACCHARIDE EXAMPLES-- potatoes, bread, grains, corn100 to 1000 monosaccharides joinedStarch-how carbohydrates are stored in plantsGlycogen-how carbohydrates are stored in animalsCellulose-found in plant cell walls; animals cannot digest (Fiber)
14LIPIDSLipids are made by cells to store energy for long periods of time.Used to make membranes in cells.Lipids include fats, oils, and waxes.Can you think of examples of lipids in plants or animals?
15LIPIDS “Lipos-FAT” FUNCTION Long term energy storage Insulate against heat lossProtective cushion around organsFOUND INFatty foods, butter, margarine, cooking oilsSTRUCTUREContain Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen (on occasion other elements)Glycerol (backbone 3 Carbons with -OH groups) and fatty acid chainsDon’t dissolve in waterFATS and OILS (Triglycerides)One glycerol with 3 fatty acid tailPHOSPHOLIPIDSMake up cell membranes contain C,H, O and phosphorus (2 fatty acid tails)WAXESOnly 1 fatty acid tail with alcohol attached; protective coating on fruits etc.STEROIDSIncludes cholesterol, female and male sex hormonePoint out that while lipids are made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen that the hydrogen and oxygen are not in a 2:1 ratio like carbohydrates.
16PROTEINSProteins are very large molecules made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur.Protein molecules are made of chains of smaller molecules called amino acids.Control structure & metabolism of cells
17PROTEINSFUNCTIONBuilding blocks of living materials; compose structural parts such as keratin in hair and nails, antibodies, cartilage, bones, ligaments and enzymes (compounds that speed up reactions)FOUND INMeat, Eggs and CheeseSTRUCTUREMuch larger, more complex than carbohydrates and lipids . Contain Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen & Nitrogen.BUILDING BLOCKSAmino Acids (There are 20 different amino acids)PEPTIDE BONDSHold amino acids together (dipeptides, tripeptides, polypeptides)DENATURATIONWhen proteins are exposed to extreme changes in pH, temperature etc. they lose their shape and can no longer function.
18NUCLEIC ACIDSNucleic acids are compounds made of long, repeating chains called nucleotides.DNA is a nucleic acid that contains the information cells need to make all of their proteins. DNA is the “blueprint” for living organisms.
19Nucleic acids FUNCTION Important for growth & reproduction of cells, contains the genetic code (what genes are made from)FOUND INGenes – 2 types DNA and RNASTRUCTURESugar (deoxyribose or ribose), phosphate, nitrogen basesBUILDING BLOCKSNucleotidesATPA nucleic acid that is made in the cell’s mitochondria. Glucose is converted into ATP.SHAPEDNA is known for its twisted ladder shape
23Am I a Carbohydrate, nucleic acid, Protein or lipid? NOTICE: C,H,O and the 2:1 ratio of H to O
24Am I a Carbohydrate, nucleic acid, Protein or lipid? NOTICE:the twisted shape of DNA
25Am I a Carbohydrate, nucleic acid, Protein or lipid? NOTICE: The Glycerol back bone and fatty acid tails
26am I a Carbohydrate, nucleic acid, Protein or lipid? NOTICE: The amino acid monomers
27Am I a Carbohydrate, nucleic acid, Protein or lipid?
28Am I a Carbohydrate, nucleic acid, Protein or lipid?
29Am I a Carbohydrate, nucleic acid, Protein or lipid? CHROMOSOME
30Am I a Carbohydrate, nucleic acid, Protein or lipid?
31Am I a Carbohydrate, nucleic acid, Protein or lipid? NOTICE: The phospate, sugar and base
32Am I a Carbohydrate, nucleic acid, Protein or lipid? NOTICE: The nitrogen and R-group
33MACROMOLECULE FOLDABLE Fold and cut a piece of paper as shown below to make 4 tabs.Hamburger-fold Then, fold this in halfa piece of paper to make creases for flaps.Next. Open the paper up and Cut along the creasesfold the edges to the center. to make flaps.A BC DFRONT SIDE OF TABS:Tab A1. Label the tab CARBOHYDRATE (BLUE).2. Write a basic description.3. Sketch and color a GLUCOSE moleculeTAB B1. Label the tab LIPID (GREEN)2. List what lipids include.3. Sketch and label a TRIGLYCERIDE molecule.TAB C1. Label the tab PROTEIN (RED)3. Sketch and color an AMINO ACIDTAB D1. Label the tab NUCLEIC ACID (PURPLE)3. Sketch and color a NUCLEOTIDEBACK SIDE OF TABS:TAB A1. Give 2 FUNCTIONS OF CARBOHYDRATES2. List 4 EXAMPLES OF CARBOHYDRATESTAB B1. Give 2 FUNCTIONS OF LIPID2. List 4 EXAMPLES OF LIPIDS TAB C1. Give 4 FUNCTIONS OF PROTEIN2. List 2 EXAMPLES OF PROTEINS TAB D1. Give 2 FUNCTIONS OF NUCLEIC ACIDS2. List 2 EXAMPLES OF NUCLEIC ACIDSON THE INSIDE CENTER SECTION, write this heading at the top of the page:“COMPOUNDS IN A PERSON”.Draw a human, and show where/how the 4 macromolecules are used in the body.On the back of the Foldable, write your name and class period.Below your name and class period, write and define the following terms:1. POLYMER (also – draw and label a diagram)2. MONOMER (also – draw and label a diagram)