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Ecosystems biosphere Ecosystem inputs constant input of energy energy flows through nutrients cycle nutrients can only cycle inputs  energy  nutrients.

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Presentation on theme: "Ecosystems biosphere Ecosystem inputs constant input of energy energy flows through nutrients cycle nutrients can only cycle inputs  energy  nutrients."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Ecosystems

3 biosphere Ecosystem inputs constant input of energy energy flows through nutrients cycle nutrients can only cycle inputs  energy  nutrients inputs  energy  nutrients

4 Matter is recycled and reused between the living and nonliving worlds through biogeochemical cycles Water Carbon Nitrogen Phosphorus Biogeochemical Cycles

5 Lakes Runoff Percolation in soil Evaporation Transpiration Precipitation Oceans Solar energy Aquifer Groundwater Water cycle Water vapor

6 Birds Herbivores Plants amino acids Carnivores Atmospheric nitrogen loss to deep sediments Fish Plankton with nitrogen-fixing bacteria Nitrogen-fixing bacteria (plant roots) Nitrogen-fixing bacteria (soil) Denitrifying bacteria Death, excretion, feces Nitrifying bacteria soil nitrates excretion Decomposing bacteria Ammonifying bacteria Nitrogen cycle

7 All organisms need nitrogen to make proteins and nucleic acids Nitrogen gas makes up 78% of the Earths atmosphere Most plants only use nitrates (NO 3 )

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10 Soil bacteria take up NH 4 + and oxidize it into nitrites (NO 2 - ) and nitrates (NO 3 - ) through the nitrification process Plants use nitrates to form amino acids

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12 Phosphorus cycle Loss to deep sediment Rocks and minerals Soluble soil phosphate Plants and algae Plants Urine Land animals Precipitates Aquatic animals Animal tissue and feces Animal tissue and feces Decomposers (bacteria and fungi) Decomposers (bacteria & fungi) Phosphates in solution Loss in drainage

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14 When rocks erode, small amounts of phosphorous dissolve as phosphate (PO 3 - ) Plants absorb phosphates through their roots Also added when wastes and organisms decompose Some comes from fertilizer

15 Carbon cycle CO 2 in atmosphere Diffusion Respiration Photosynthesis Plants and algae Plants Animals Industry and home Combustion of fuels Animals Carbonates in sediment Bicarbonates Deposition of dead material Deposition of dead material Fossil fuels (oil, gas, coal) Dissolved CO 2

16 Photosynthesis and cellular respiration form the basis of this cycle In photosynthesis, plants and other autotrophs use CO 2, water, and solar energy to make carbohydrates Autotrophs and heterotrophs break down carbohydrates during cellular respiration Carbon Cycle

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18 The concentration of atmospheric carbon has risen more than 30% in the last 150 years Humans contribute by burning fossil fuels and organic matter to produce energy

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21 GREENHOUSE EFFECT

22 Breaking the water cycle Deforestation breaks the water cycle – groundwater is not transpired to the atmosphere, so precipitation is not created forest  desert desertification

23 Effects of deforestation Concentration of nitrate (mg/l ) Year Deforestation nitrate levels in runoff 40% increase in runoff  loss of water 40% increase in runoff  loss of water  60x loss in nitrogen  10x loss in calcium  60x loss in nitrogen  10x loss in calcium loss into surface water loss out of ecosystem!

24 FALSE! Denitrification!!

25 The addition of toxic chemicals to the soils; construction and deforestation can cause soil erosion

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