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Proposed Nutrient Criteria for Drinking Water Lakes and Reservoirs in NY State Cliff Callinan, P.E. & Ron Entringer, P.E.; NYSDEC John Hassett, Ph.D.,

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Presentation on theme: "Proposed Nutrient Criteria for Drinking Water Lakes and Reservoirs in NY State Cliff Callinan, P.E. & Ron Entringer, P.E.; NYSDEC John Hassett, Ph.D.,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Proposed Nutrient Criteria for Drinking Water Lakes and Reservoirs in NY State Cliff Callinan, P.E. & Ron Entringer, P.E.; NYSDEC John Hassett, Ph.D., SUNY ESF Jim Hyde, NYSDOH 2013 NYC Watershed/Tifft Science & Technical Symposium CWA NYWEA SDWA NYSAWWA

2 Clifford W. Callinan, P.E. NYSDEC (Albany) Engineer/Limnologist Education (Cornell) - B.S. Bio./Chem. -M.S. Env. Eng. 219 September, 2013Callinan Watershed/Tifft

3 Presentation Overview Introduction Study & Methods Findings Conclusions-Recommendations Q & A 319 September, 2013Callinan Watershed/Tifft From:

4 Learning Objectives Understand linkages between nutrient enrichment & potential human-health related impacts to potable water supplies (PWSs) Understand “linkages” between SDWA & CWA Discuss potential unintended consequences that may arise from certain operational changes targeted at addressing some of these issues Briefly review derivation of proposed numeric nutrient criteria (NNC) for PWS lakes and reservoirs 419 September, 2013Callinan Watershed/Tifft

5 Nutrient-Related Concerns PWS University of Toledo Recreation Aquatic Life September, 2013Callinan Watershed/Tifft

6 Why the Concern w/ Nutrients & PWS? Arsenic: cancer of bladder & kidney, as well as liver, prostate & lung Cyanotoxins: acute toxicity (liver & nervous system), as well as possible carcinogen, also hypothetical link to ALS & other neurological disorders 619 September, 2013Callinan Watershed/Tifft DBPs: cancer of colon & liver, as well as bladder & kidney; acute reproductive

7 12 December, 2007Callinan - DBP/AT Project N-Steps7 Limnology 101 – “Limiting Factor” Liebig's Law of the Minimum (1840) Principal growth factors (GFs) include temperature, light, nutrients, and suitable habitat “Algae” limited by the GF in shortest supply. In temperate freshwater, most common limiting factor during growing season is phosphorus Not all forms of P are equally available PO 4 N

8 Sediments Algae & Cyanobacteria P Leaves, humic & fulvic acids, WWTPs, etc Watershed Inputs Autochthonous NOM Allochthonous P As Anoxia O2O2 O2O2 Cyanotoxins, Taste & Odor, Filter Clogging, & Treatment Costs Disinfection By- Products & Treatment Costs Arsenic, Iron/Manganese & Treatment Costs Harder to treat Easier to treat PWS Concerns Cl 2 Credit: Jim Hyde 8 How Does this Happen ?

9 919 September, 2013Callinan Watershed/Tifft

10 Allochthonous v. Autochthonous Source Water Protection Perspective  Allochthonous largely beyond our control  Autochthonous amenable to control via nutrient management (i.e., NNC) Water Treatment Perspective  Allochthonous easier to remove  Autochthonous hard to remove Tangential/Value Added Benefits  Reduce unregulated DBPs  Limit cyanobacteria & toxins  Limit REDOX issues (e.g., As, Fe, Mn, P, etc.) 1019 September, 2013Callinan Watershed/Tifft

11 Multiple Barrier Approach Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment 2 Main Components  Source Water Protection  Water Treatment Policy (CWA/SDWA, criteria, watershed rules & regs., etc.) Monitoring  Raw – CWA  Finished - SDWA Redundancy Axiom ! 1119 September, 2013Callinan Watershed/Tifft

12 Unintended Consequences “Whack-a-Mole” Phenomenon “Chase-the-MCL” Scenario  Chloramines: N-DBPs, I-DBPs  ClO 2 – Chlorite/Chlorate Algaecides (e.g., CuSo4) & Preox.  Potential release CB toxins  Release of DOC   DBPs Fe & Mn Control   oxidant dose   DBPs 1219 September, 2013Callinan Watershed/Tifft From: Sadiq et al. (2004) “A major challenge for water suppliers is how to balance the risks from microbial pathogens and disinfection byproducts. It is important to provide protection from microbial pathogens while simultaneously minimizing health risks to the population from disinfection byproducts.” From:

13 Presentation Overview Introduction Study Intro. & Methods Findings Conclusions/Recommendations Q & A 1319 September, 2013Callinan Watershed/Tifft

14 Project Introduction & Disclaimer Project originated in response to a USEPA RFP related to development of nutrient criteria Project Goal: Establish nutrient criteria for potable waters in NY State protective of human health Presentation Disclaimer: Material presented is a work in progress and is not official NY State policy as yet ! 1419 September, 2013Callinan Watershed/Tifft

15 Institutional Acknowledgements NYSDEC SUNY ESF Upstate Freshwater Institute New York State Department of Health Morgan State University Estuarine Research Center Several Public Water Supply Systems 1519 September, 2013Callinan Watershed/Tifft

16 Methods (THMFP & Algal Toxins) Sampling  Sampling was conducted on 21 lakes/reservoirs  Monthly sampling May - October Laboratory Analysis  Conventional Indices (P, N, Chl-a, DOC)  Trihalomethane Formation Potential (THMFP)  Algal Toxins (microcystin-LR, anatoxin-a) 1619 September, 2013Callinan Watershed/Tifft

17 Presentation Overview Introduction Study Intro. & Methods Findings Conclusions-Recommendations Q & A 1719 September, 2013Callinan Watershed/Tifft

18 Basic Limnology Findings Very good relationship observed between total phosphorus (causal variable) and chlorophyll a (response variable) - r 2 ~ 0.85  Generally consistent with (NY) statewide findings as well as other investigators  Supports the hypothesis that phosphorus controls algae growth within these systems during the growing season 1819 September, 2013Callinan Watershed/Tifft Steps 1 & 2

19 1919 September, 2013Callinan Watershed/Tifft

20 Disinfection By-Products Findings 2019 September, 2013Callinan Watershed/Tifft Steps 1-3 & A

21 Overview of THMFP Results Seasonal increases in THMFP levels were observed in most of the systems studied THMFP concentrations were found to increase with increasing trophic state Reasonably predictive relationships were observed between trophic indices and THMFP; with r 2 : ~ 0.6 – September, 2013Callinan Watershed/Tifft

22 2219 September, 2013Callinan Watershed/Tifft

23 2319 September, 2013Callinan Watershed/Tifft

24 Where to Draw the Line & Verification ? THMFP is a “worst case” scenario How to compare THMFP results to real world TTHMs Employ off-the-shelf, peer-reviewed model  THM = f (DOC, time, dose, pH, temperature)  Run 1: Verify using SMs: Observed v. Model  Run 2: Use “typical” albeit conservative PWS conditions & TTHM MCL, Solve  DOC crit.  Use DOC crit. to solve for THMFP crit.  Use THMFP crit. to solve for [Chl-a] threshold Verification: (1) Ground-truth w/ Real World Cases & (2) Corroboration from Independent Studies 2419 September, 2013Callinan Watershed/Tifft

25 “Reverse Engineering” Approach Step 1 (Sim. Model Run #1): ID “off-the-shelf” model that accurately simulates study THMFP results (r 2 = 0.78)  TTHM = f (DOC, temp., dose, pH, time) Step 2 (Sim. Model Run #2): Run model using typical, albeit conservative, WTP conditions and current MCL (80 ppb)  solve for DOC  DOC crit.  3.0 mg/l Step 3: Use computed DOC crit. to ID [THMFP] threshold DOC crit. = 3.0 mg/l  THMFP crit. ~ ug/l Step 4: Use THMFP threshold ID thresholds for nutrient indices (TP, chlorophyll, and/or Secchi Depth) 2519 September, 2013Callinan Watershed/Tifft

26 3x MCL 2x MCL 2619 September, 2013Callinan Watershed/Tifft

27 2x MCL 3x MCL 2719 September, 2013Callinan Watershed/Tifft

28 3x MCL 2x MCL 2819 September, 2013Callinan Watershed/Tifft

29 Ground Truth Exercises (DBPs) Source Water Exhibiting Substantial Increase in Algal Biomass & Apparent Response in PWS 3 rd Qtr. TTHM Levels Source Water With Moderately Elevated Algal Biomass Levels and PWS Running Annual Average TTHM Levels 2919 September, 2013Callinan Watershed/Tifft

30 3019 September, 2013Callinan Watershed/Tifft Ambient

31 3119 September, 2013Callinan Watershed/Tifft

32 Corroborative Studies OECD (1982): Guidance Value [TP] < 10 ug/l British Columbia (1986): Guidance for water supply source water of [TP] = 10 ug/l Arruda & Fromm (1989): Suggested [Chl-a] = 5 ug/l threshold to meet [TTHM] = 100 ug/l Colorado DPHE (2012): Patterned on NY’s work (w/ enhancements); Very similar endpoint: [Chl-a] = 5 ug/l applicable to Direct Use Water Supplies (DUWS) September, 2013Callinan Watershed/Tifft From:

33 OECD (1982) Findings “…High levels of chlorine and organic substances lead to significant concentrations of organochlorinated compounds in drinking water…Waters for potable use should be protected from eutrophication.” (page 14) “For management, the following considerations are pertinent…(b) For certain purposes, e.g. drinking water reservoirs, the objective may have to be more stringent than 10 mg/m 3 [TP]” Organization of Economic and Cultural Development (OECD) Eutrophication of Waters, Monitoring, Assessment and Control. OECD, Paris, France, 154 p September, 2013Callinan Watershed/Tifft

34 Arruda & Fromm (1989) Findings (page 207) “Extrapolation of the quenched THM regression lines to the 0.10 mg/l drinking water standard for THM indicates that finished water THM concentrations would not exceed this standard at a lake trophic state less than 45…this trophic state corresponds to a chlorophyll concentration of approximately 5 ug/l.” This is very consistent with our recommendations, slightly higher (5 ug/l vs 4 ug/l), but used higher endpoint of 0.10 mg/l (as compared to 0.08 mg/l TTHM) which was MCL at the time September, 2013Callinan Watershed/Tifft

35 CO DPHE ( ) State of CO conducted a subsequent study (DUWS) patterned on NY Study but with several enhancements (e.g., UFC, included HAAs, N-DBPs, etc.). CO has actually followed thru with rule making and the criteria are now officially on the books ! “Among the many negative water quality consequences of increased algal abundance in lakes is an increase in the amount of DOC. An increase in DOC concentration is of special concern for drinking water supplies because it represents an increase in the precursors available to form DBPs.” Reference: CO DPHE) Basis for Interim Value to Protect Direct Use Water Supplies. WQCD Prehearing Statement Exhibit #10, December 9, September, 2013Callinan Watershed/Tifft

36 Algal Toxins Findings Steps 1-2, 6 & B

37 Initial Cyanotoxin Findings Caveats: (1) No U.S. CB toxin criteria – defer to WHO D.W. G.V. for MC-LR of 1 ug/l; (2) Additional NY Studies ongoing, but not yet fully analyzed Preliminary findings suggest nutrient thresholds for the control of cyanobacteria and associated toxins is somewhat higher than thresholds for DBPs. Findings also consistent w/ others (e.g., Downing, et al. 2001) Thus, it would appear that the thresholds derived for DBPs would also be protective for cyanobacteria and associated toxins September, 2013Callinan Watershed/Tifft

38 3819 September, 2013Callinan Watershed/Tifft

39 Predicting Cyanobacteria Dominance Downing, et al. (2001), “Predicting Cyanobacteria dominance in lakes”, Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 58: 1905– September, 2013Callinan Watershed/Tifft

40 Arsenic Findings 4019 September, 2013Callinan Watershed/Tifft Steps 4-5 & C

41 Initial Arsenic Findings Results indicate arsenic levels can become elevated in hypolimnetic waters of some eutrophic lakes and reservoirs in New York during growing season In general, it appears that arsenic is originating from natural sources, however, its enrichment in hypolimnion is likely due to DO depletion (in part due to cultural eutrophication), and reductive release September, 2013Callinan Watershed/Tifft

42 4219 September, 2013Callinan Watershed/Tifft

43 Climate Change Union of Concerned Scientists (2007) 43 Farmer/Gardener’s Take on this: L. Emissions: 4-5 mo.  5-6 mo. H. Emissions: 4-5 mo.  7-8 mo. 19 September, 2013Callinan Watershed/Tifft

44 Presentation Overview Introduction Study Intro. & Methods Findings Conclusions-Recommendations Q & A 4419 September, 2013Callinan Watershed/Tifft

45 Summary of Take Home Messages Nutrient enrichment of PWS waters can have adverse impacts on drinking water quality The CWA & SDWA need to work in concert in order to best protect PWSs Operational changes to address one concern may lead to additional challenge(s) [Chl-a] < ~ 4-6 ug/l appear reasonably protective of PWS with respect to DBPs and algal toxins 4519 September, 2013Callinan Watershed/Tifft

46 Q & A  Clifford W. Callinan, P.E. NYSDEC 625 Broadway, Albany, NY (518) September, 2013Callinan Watershed/Tifft  N-Steps Web-cast (2007)  AWWA Paper (2013)  AWWA Webinar 30 April, 2014

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