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Chemical Nomenclature Written by Y. Deng, J. Bazzi and D. Bandyopadhyay Produced by the Science Learning Center (SLC) University of Michigan -Dearborn.

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Presentation on theme: "Chemical Nomenclature Written by Y. Deng, J. Bazzi and D. Bandyopadhyay Produced by the Science Learning Center (SLC) University of Michigan -Dearborn."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chemical Nomenclature Written by Y. Deng, J. Bazzi and D. Bandyopadhyay Produced by the Science Learning Center (SLC) University of Michigan -Dearborn 2013

2 What is Chemical Nomenclature? A set of rules to generate systematic names for chemical substances Language of chemistry Used by scientists, particularly chemists, to communicate and discuss the issues related to chemistry ?

3 Purpose To introduce the systems of chemical nomenclature used to name inorganic compounds and to write chemical formulas of inorganic compounds.

4 Inorganic vs. Organic Compounds Inorganic compounds are referred traditionally to those extracted from non-living things (e.g., rocks) and viewed as being synthesized by geological systems. Examples: calcium carbonate (a major compound found in rocks): CaCO 3 Sodium chloride (a major compound found in table salt): NaCl Organic compounds, on the other hand, are referred traditionally to those found in living things (e.g., plants and animals) and mainly contain carbon-hydrogen chain and ring structures. Examples: Ethanol (one of the fermentation products of grapes): CH 3 CH 2 OH Caffeine (one of the components found in coffee beans):

5 Specific Objectives: 1.Write correct chemical formulas for inorganic compounds. 2. Name inorganic compounds. 3. Determine the electric charges of ions involved in ionic compounds.

6 THE PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS AND SYMBOLS OF THE ELEMENTS Part I

7  The Periodic Table of the Elements is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, organized on the basis of their atomic numbers (i.e., the number of protons in their nuclei) and recurring chemical properties.  There are 118 elements currently listed on the periodic table. About 90 elements are found in nature. The remaining ones have been produced artificially using high energy particle accelerators.

8 Each element has its name and symbol. The symbol can be up to three letters. The first letter must be capitalized and the second and third, if any, are in a lower case. Examples: Name Symbol Nitrogen N ChlorineCl Unun­pentiumUup

9 The symbols of the elements are derived from:  English names hydrogen – H calcium– Ca phosphorus – P  Latin names Ferrum (iron) – Fe Aurum (gold) – Au

10 Chemical Symbols Derived from Their English Names SymbolEnglish Name SymbolEnglish Name Hhydrogen S sulfur Ccarbon Cl chlorine NnitrogenCacalcium OoxygenMgmagnesium FfluorineMn manganese AlaluminumCocobalt Si silicon Ni nickel PphosphorousZnzinc BabariumCrchromium

11 Chemical Symbols Derived from Their Latin Names SymbolEnglish Name Latin Name Meaning Agsilverargentumsilver Augoldaurumshining dawn Feironferrumiron Hgmercuryhydrargyrumliquid silver Kpotassiumkaliumpotash silver Nasodiumnatriumsoda Pbleadplumbumheavy Cucoppercuprum “from Cyprus” where the Romans found copper.

12 alkali metals Noble gases 1 IA alkaline earth metalshalogens 18 VIIIA or 0 H Hydrogen 2 IIA 13 IIIA 14 IVA 15 VA 16 VIA 17 VIIA He Helium Li Lithium Be Beryllium Transition Metals B Boron C Carbon N Nitrogen O Oxygen F Fluorine Ne Neon Na Sodium Mg Magnesium Al Aluminum Si Silicon P Phosphorus S Sulfur Cl Chlorine Ar Argon K Potassium Ca Calcium Br Bromine Rb Rubidium Sr Strontium Sn Tin I Iodine Xe Xenon Cs Cesium Ba Barium Pb Lead The main group elements that must be memorized, indicated in green color for their symbols and names

13 4 IVB 5 VB 6 VIB 7 VIIB IB 12 IIB ←VIIIB→ Ti Titanium V Vanadium Cr Chromium Mn Manganese Fe Iron Co Cobalt Ni Nickel Cu Copper Zn Zinc Ag Silver Pt Platinum Au Gold Hg Mercury The transition metal elements that must be memorized, indicated in red color of their symbols and names

14 Exercise 1 Write names or symbols of the following elements. 1.Ca 8. tin 2.K9. silicon 3.Co10. gold 4.Mn11. copper 5.Cr12. carbon 6.Fe13. neon 7.P14. bromine

15 NAMING BINARY IONIC COMPOUNDS (CONTAINING TWO DIFFERENT ELEMENTS) Part II

16 Naming Binary Ionic Compounds An ionic compound is a chemical compound in which ions are held together by the electrostatic forces between oppositely charged bodies. Usually, the positively charged portion consists of metal cations (e.g., Na + ) and the negatively charged portion consists of anions (e.g., Cl - ).

17 Formation of An Ionic Compound Cl Cl - e - A sodium atom loses an electron to form a positive ion (cation): Na +. A chlorine atom gains an electron to form a negative ion (anion): Cl -. The cation and the anion are held together by the electrostatic forces (ionic bond) to form an ionic compound. Na Na +

18 Rules for Naming Binary Ionic Compounds 1.When naming cations, the name of the element is used. 2.When naming anions that are derived from an atom of the element, the name of the element is modified with the suffix –ide added. 3. Write the symbol of the cation first, and then the symbol of the anion. For example: Chlorine (Cl) is the name of the element. When a chlorine atom gains an electron, it becomes an anion, chloride (Cl - ). NaCl

19 Formation of Magnesium Chloride Mg Cl e- Write the formula with the positive & negative charges balanced. Mg Cl -  MgCl 2 Mg 2+ Cl Cl - A subscript “2” is used to indicate number of chloride ion present in a magnesium chloride compound.

20 4. Compounds are electrically neutral, thus the total number of cations and anions must be such that positive and negative charges balance to zero. 5. The number of each ion present in the compound is designated by a subscript following its chemical symbols. For example, an aluminum oxide compound consists of 2 aluminum cation (Al 3+ ) and 3 oxide anions (O 2- ). Rules for Naming Binary Ionic Compounds (Continued) MgCl 2 Al 2 O 3

21 15 VA 16 VIA 17 VIIA 18 VIIIA 1 IA 2 IIA 13 IIIA 33 22 1 H1H 2 He 3 Li 4 Be 7N7N 8O8O 9F9F 10 Ne 11 Na 12 Mg 13 Al 15 P 16 S 17 Cl 18 Ar 19 K 20 Ca Transition Metal Elements 31 Ga 35 Br 36 Kr 37 Rb 38 Sr 53 I 54 Xe 55 Cs 56 Ba A modified periodic table useful for writing formulas for binary ionic compounds. The numbers in blue indicate the common charges of cations and anions after these atoms gain or lose electrons. MetalsNon-metals

22 Examples of Binary Ionic Compounds Full NameName of CationName of AnionChemical Formula sodium chloridesodium (Na + ) chloride (Cl - ) NaCl lithium bromidelithium (Li + )bromide (Br - )LiBr calcium iodidecalcium (Ca 2+ )Iodide (I - )CaI 2 aluminum sulfidealuminum (Al 3+ )sulfide (S 2- )Al 2 S 3 potassium oxidepotassium (K + )oxide (O 2- )K2OK2O lithium hydridelithium (Li + )hydride (H -1 )LiH barium nitridebarium (Ba 2+ )nitride (N 3- )Ba 3 N 2 strontium phosphidestrontium (Sr 2+ )phosphide (P 3- )Sr 3 P 2

23 Some metals can form cations with different charges. These cations can be named using two systems: (a) Stock System: The charges of cations can be described by using Roman numerals. Ex. Iron can form two cations: Fe 2+ & Fe 3+ FeCl 2 : iron(II) chloride FeCl 3 :iron(III) chloride (pronounce: iron-two chloride; iron-three chloride) (b) Classical system: Assign the ending “ous” to the cations with fewer positive charges and the ending “ic” to the cations with more positive charges Ex. Iron can form two cations: Fe 2+ & Fe 3+ FeCl 2 : ferrous chloride FeCl 3 :ferric chloride

24 Element Cations Names, Charges chromium, Cr chromium(II) (chromous) +2 chromium(III) (chromic) +3 cobalt, Co cobalt(II) (cobaltous) +2 cobalt(III) (cobaltic) +3 copper, Cu copper(I) (cuprous) +1 copper(II) (cupric) +2 iron, Fe iron(II) (ferrous) +2 iron(III) (ferric) +3 lead, Pb lead(II) (plumbous) +2 lead(IV) (plumbic) +4 manganese, Mn manganese(II) (manganous) +2 manganese(III) (manganic) +3 mercury, Hg mercury(I) (mercurous) +1 mercury(II) (mercuric) +2 nickel, Ni nickel(II) (nickelous) +2 nickel(III) (nickelic) +3 tin, Sn tin (II) (stannous) +2 tin(IV) (stannic) +4 Naming of Cations Using the Classical and Stock Systems:

25 Additional Examples of Binary Ionic Compounds Chemical Formula Name of Cation Name of Anion Name (Stock System) Name (Classical System) FeF 2 (Fe 2+ ) iron(II), ferrous fluoride (F - )iron(II) fluorideferrous fluoride FeF 3 (Fe 3+ ) iron(III), ferric fluoride (F - )iron(III) fluorideferric fluoride Cu 2 O (Cu + ) copper(I), cuprous oxide (O 2- )copper(I) oxidecuprous oxide CuO (Cu 2+ ) copper(II), cupric oxide (O 2- )copper(II) oxidecupric oxide PbBr 2 (Pb 2+ ) lead(II), plumbous bromide (Br - ) lead(II) bromide plumbous bromide PbBr 4 (Pb 4+ ) lead(IV), plumbic bromide (Br - ) lead(IV) bromide plumbic bromide

26 Exercise 2 Give the names or formulas of the following binary ionic compounds. If a compound can be named by both the Stock and the Classical systems, provide both names. 1. CaO 2 8. aluminum chloride 2. NaH9. calcium phosphide 3. Mg 3 N stannous oxide 4. FeI ferric bromide 5. CuCl12. ferrous bromide 6. CuCl barium nitride 7. Ba 3 P nickel(III) chloride

27 NAMING IONIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING POLYATOMIC IONS Part III

28 IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA VIB VIIB B BO 3 3- borate C CO 3 2- carbonate N NO 3 - nitrate {NO 2 - } {nitrite} OF Si SiO 4 4- silicate P PO 4 3- phosphate {PO 3 3- } {phosphite} S SO 4 2- sulfate {SO 3 2- } {sulfite} Cl ClO 3 - chlorate {ClO 2 - } {chlorite} Cr CrO 4 2- chromate Cr 2 O 7 2- dichromate Mn MnO 4 2- manganate MnO 4 - permanganate Br BrO 3 - bromate I IO 3 - iodate An oxo-anion usually contains two elements in which one of them must be oxygen. The oxo-anions of some elements (in blue) can have either a suffix -ate or -ite added to the root names of the elements. For example, SO 4 2- and SO 3 2- are oxo-anions of sulfur element. Their names are sulfate and sulfite, respectively. Names of Some Oxo-Anions

29 Names of Common Polyatomic Ions Formula of Ion Name of Ion Formula of Ion Name of ion Formula of Ion Name of Ion NO 2 - nitriteNO 3 - nitrateSCN - thiocyanate SO 4 2- sulfateHSO 4 - hydrogen sulfate bisulfate BrO 3 - bromate SO 3 2- sulfiteHSO 3 - hydrogen sulfite bisulfite AsO 3 3- arsenite CO 3 2- carbonateHCO 3 - bicarbonate hydrogen carbonate AsO 4 3- arsenate MnO 4 - permanganateCrO 4 2- chromateCr 2 O 7 2- dichromate PO 4 3- phosphateHPO 4 2- hydrogen phosphateH 2 PO 4 2- dihydrogen phosphate ClO 2 - chloriteClO 3 - chlorateClO 4 - perchlorate ClO - hypochloriteIO 3 - iodateIO 4 - periodate

30 Names of Common Polyatomic Ions (cont.) FormulaIon NH 4 + ammonium Hg 2 2+ mercury(I) (mercurous) CN  cyanide OH  hydroxide O22O22 peroxide SCN  thiocyanate C 2 H 3 O 2  (or CH 3 COO - )acetate CHO 2 - (or HCOO - )formate C 2 O 4 2- (or - OOC-COO - )oxalate

31 Examples of Ionic Compounds with Polyatomic Ions FormulaName of CationName of Anion Stock System Classical System NiSO 4 (Ni 2+ ) nickel(II), nickelous sulfate(SO 4 2- ) nickel(II) sulfate nickelous sulfate Ni 2 (SO 4 ) 3 (Ni 3+ ) nickel(III), nickelic sulfate(SO 4 2- ) nickel(III) sulfate nickelic sulfate (NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 (NH 4 + ), ammonium hydrogen phosphate(HPO 4 2- ) ammonium hydrogen phosphate ammonium hydrogen phosphate Al(CH 3 COO) 3 Al 3+, aluminumacetate(CH 3 COO - ) aluminum acetate Hg 2 (NO 2 ) 2 (Hg 2 2+ ) mercury(I) mercurous nitrite(NO 2 - ) mercury(I) nitrite mercurous nitrite Hg(NO 2 ) 2 (Hg 2+ ) mercury(II) mercuric nitrite(NO 2 - ) mercury(II) nitrite mercuric nitrite

32 Exercise 3 Give the names or formulas of the following ionic compounds with polyatomic ions. If a compound can be named by both the Stock and the Classical systems, provide both names. 1. CaSO 3 8. calcium phosphate 2. NaHCO 3 9. cuprous sulfite 3.Hg 2 (NO 3 ) ammonium nitrite 4. Hg(NO 2 ) ferrous dihydrogen phosphate 5. Cu(CH 3 COO) barium cyanide 6. Ba(SCN) potassium permanganate 7. Na 2 Cr 2 O plumbous carbonate

33 NAMING ACIDS AND BASES Part IV

34 FormulaPure SubstanceAqueous Solution HClhydrogen chloridehydrochloric acid HBrhydrogen bromidehydrobromic acid HIhydrogen iodidehydroiodic acid H2SH2Shydrogen sulfidehydrosulfuric acid HCNhydrogen cyanidehydrocyanic acid A. Acids without oxygen atoms An acid is a substance that ionizes in water to produce hydrogen ions (H + ). A base is a substance that ionizes in water to produce hydroxide ions (OH - ). The following compounds are named depending on whether they are present as pure substances or are dissolved in water to form aqueous solutions.

35 B. Common oxo-anions and their corresponding oxo-acids. ElementOxo-AnionOxo-Acid boronBO 3 3  borateH 3 BO 3 boric acid nitrogenNO 3  nitrateHNO 3 nitric acid phosphorus PO 4 3  phosphateH 3 PO 4 phosphoric acid PO 3 3  phosphiteH 3 PO 3 phosphorous acid sulfur SO 4 2  sulfateH 2 SO 4 sulfuric acid SO 3 2  sulfiteH 2 SO 3 sulfurous acid chlorine ClO  hypochloriteHClOhypochlorous acid ClO 2  chloriteHClO 2 chlorous acid ClO 3  chlorateHClO 3 chloric acid ClO 4  perchlorateHClO 4 perchloric acid bromineBrO 3  bromateHBrO 3 bromic acid iodineIO 3  iodateHIO 3 iodic acid

36 C. Common organic acids FormulaName HCOOH (CH 2 O 2 )formic acid CH 3 COOH (C 2 H 4 O 2 )acetic acid HOOCCOOH (C 2 H 2 O 4 )oxalic acid

37 D. Bases FormulaNameFormulaName NaOHsodium hydroxideLiOHlithium hydroxide KOHpotassium hydroxideSr(OH) 2 strontium hydroxide Mg(OH) 2 magnesium hydroxideCa(OH) 2 calcium hydroxide Ba(OH) 2 barium hydroxideAgOHsilver hydroxide Zn(OH) 2 zinc hydroxideAl(OH) 3 aluminum hydroxide Hg 2 (OH) 2 mercury(I) hydroxide mercurous hydroxide Hg(OH) 2 mercury(II) hydroxide mercuric hydroxide CuOH copper(I) hydroxide cuprous hydroxide Cu(OH) 2 copper(II) hydroxide cupric hydroxide Ni(OH) 2 nickel(II) hydroxide nickelous hydroxide Ni(OH) 3 nickel(III) hydroxide nickelic hydroxide Co(OH) 2 cobalt(II) hydroxide cobaltous hydroxide Co(OH) 3 cobalt(III) hydroxide cobaltic hydroxide Pb(OH) 2 lead(II) hydroxide plumbous hydroxide Cr(OH) 3 chromium(III) hydroxide chromic hydroxide

38 Exercise 4 Give the names or formulas of the following acids and bases. If an acid or a base can be named by both the Stock and the Classical systems, provide both names. 1. HF (aqueous solution)8. nitric acid 2. H 2 SO 3 9. aluminum hydroxide 3. H 2 CO ferric hydroxide 4. H 2 S (pure substance)11. cuprous hydroxide 5. Hg 2 (OH) hydrocyanic acid 6. Fe(OH) nitrous acid 7. H 3 PO sulfuric acid

39 NAMING HYDRATES Part V

40 Hydrates – compounds that have a specific number of water molecules attached to them. Examples: (1)BaCl 2 · 2H 2 O (2)CuSO 4 · 5H 2 O (3)MgSO 4 ·7 H 2 O

41 The First Ten Greek Prefixes Greek PrefixNumber mono-1 di-2 tri-3 tetra-4 penta-5 hexa-6 hepta-7 octa-8 nona-9 deca-10

42 Examples of Hydrates and Their Names (1)BaCl 2 ·2H 2 O Name: barium chloride dihydrate (2) CuSO 4 ·5H 2 O Name : copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate ( Stock System) Or cupric sulfate pentahydrate (Classical System) (3) MgSO 4 ·7 H 2 O Name: magnesium sulfate heptahydrate The Greek prefixes are used to indicate the number of water molecules in hydrates.

43 Exercise 5 Give the names or formulas for the following hydrates. If a hydrate can be named by both the Stock and the Classical systems, provide both names. (1) LiCl·H 2 O (6) barium chloride dihydrate (2) MgSO 4 ·7H 2 O (7) sodium carbonate decahydrate (3) CoCl 2 ·6H 2 O (8) ferrous sulfate hexahydrate (4) CuSO 4 ·5H 2 O (9) strontium nitrate tetrahydrate (5)Na 2 SO 4 ∙10H 2 O (10) manganese(II) nitrate tetrahydrate

44 NAMING BINARY MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS (CONTAINING TWO ELEMENTS, BUT DON’T CONTAIN CATIONS AND ANIONS) Part VI

45 Rules for Naming Binary Molecular Compounds 1.When naming the first element, the name of the element is used. 2.Then name the second element by taking the first part of the element name and adding the suffix “ide”. 3.Use Greek prefixes to denote the number of atoms of each element present. 4.The prefix “mono” can be omitted for the first element. 5.For oxides, the ending “a” in the prefix is sometimes omitted. Examples of binary molecular compounds: CO 2, CCl 4

46 Examples CO: carbon monoxide ( not monocarbon monoxide ) CO 2 : carbon dioxide SO 3 : sulfur trioxide N 2 O 4 : dinitrogen tetroxide ( not tetraoxide ) PCl 5 : phosphorus pentachloride S 2 F 10 : disulfur decaflouride

47 An exception to the use of Greek prefixes involves molecular compounds containing hydrogen Traditionally, many of these compounds are called either by their common names or by names that do not specifically indicate the number of H atoms present. Examples: CH 4 - methane; NH 3 – ammonia; PH 3 – phosphine H 2 O- water; H 2 S – hydrogen sulfide; SiH 4 -silane

48 Exercise 6 Give the names or formulas for the following binary molecular compounds. 1.NO8. dinitrogen monoxide 2.SO 2 9. boron trichloride 3.Cl 2 O diarsenic pentoxide 4.PBr sulfur hexachloride 5.SF nitrogen triiodide 6.P 2 O carbon tetra bromide 7. CCl diphosphorus pentoxide

49 Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank Ali Bazzi, Ogie Stewart and Ruixiao Zuo for their valuable comments and suggestions that were of great help in preparing and improving this module. The authors would like to thank Annette Sieg, Assistant Director of SLC, as well as the SLC staff for their help and technical support.

50 Exercise 1 – Key Write names or symbols of the following elements 1.Cacalcium8. tinSn 2.K potassium9. siliconSi 3.Cocobalt10. goldAu 4.Mnmanganese11. copperCu 5.Crchromium12. carbonC 6.Feiron13. neonNe 7.Pphosphorus14. bromineBr

51 Exercise 2 - Key Give the names or formulas of the following binary ionic compounds. If a compound can be named by both the Stock and the Classical systems, provide both names. 1. CaO 2 calcium peroxide 2. NaH sodium hydride 3. Mg 3 N 2 magnesium nitride 4. FeI 3 ferric/iron(III) iodide 5. CuClcuprous/copper(I) chloride 6. CuCl 2 cupric/copper(II) chloride 7. Ba 3 P 2 barium phosphide 8. aluminum chlorideAlCl 3 9. Calcium phosphideCa 3 P Stannous oxideSnO 11. Ferric bromideFeBr Ferrous bromideFeBr Barium nitrideBa 3 N Nickel (III) chlorideNiCl 3

52 Exercise 3 - Key Give the names or formulas of the following ionic compounds with polyatomic ions. If a compound can be named by both the Stock and the Classical systems, provide both names. 1. CaSO 3 calcium sulfite 2. NaHCO 3 sodium hydrogen carbonate or sodium bicarbonate 3.Hg 2 (NO 3 ) 2 mercurous/mercury(I) nitrate 4. Hg(NO 2 ) 2 mercuric/mercury(II) nitrite 5. Cu(CH 3 COO) 2 cupric/copper(II) acetate 6. Ba(SCN) 2 barium thiocyanate 7. Na 2 Cr 2 O 7 sodium dichromate 8. calcium phosphateCa 3 (PO 4 ) 2 9. cuprous sulfiteCu 2 SO ammonium nitriteNH 4 NO ferrous dihydrogen phosphateFe(H 2 PO 4 ) barium cyanideBa(CN) potassium permanganateKMnO plumbous carbonatePbCO 3

53 Exercise 4 - Key Give the names or formulas of the following acids and bases. If an acid or a base can be named by both the Stock and the Classical systems, provide both names. 1. HF (aqueous solution)hydrofluoric acid 2. H 2 SO 3 sulfurous acid 3. H 2 CO 3 carbonic acid 4. H 2 S (pure substance)hydrogen sulfide 5. Hg 2 (OH) 2 mercurous/mercury(I) hydroxide 6. Fe(OH) 2 ferrous/iron (II) hydroxide 7. H 3 PO 4 phosphoric acid 8. nitric acidHNO 3 9. Aluminum hydroxideAl(OH) Ferric hydroxideFe(OH) Cuprous hydroxideCuOH 12. Hydrocyanic acidHCN 13. Nitrous acidHNO Sulfuric acidH 2 SO 4

54 Exercise 5 - Key Give the names or formulas for the following hydrates. If a hydrate can be named by both the Stock and the Classical systems, provide both names. (1) LiCl·H 2 O lithium chloride monohydrate (2) MgSO 4 ·7H 2 Omagnesium sulfate heptahydrate (3) CoCl 2 ·6H 2 Ocobaltous/cobalt (II) chloride hexahydrate (4) CuSO 4 ·5H 2 Ocupric/copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate (5)Na 2 SO 4 ∙10H 2 Osodium sulfate decahydrate (6)barium chloride dihydrateBaCl 2 ·2H 2 O (7)sodium carbonate decahydrateNa 2 CO 3 ·10H 2 O (8)ferrous sulfate hexahydrateFeSO 4 ·6H 2 O (9)Strontium nitrate tetrahydrateSr(NO 3 ) 2 ·4H 2 O (10) manganese (II) nitrate tetrahydrateMn(NO 3 ) 2 ·4H 2 O

55 Exercise 6 - Key Give the names or formulas for the following binary molecular compounds. 1.NO nitrogen monoxide8. dinitrogen monoxide N 2 O 2.SO 2 sulfur dioxide9. boron trichloride BCl 3 3.Cl 2 O 7 dichlorine heptoxide10. diarsenic pentoxide Ar 2 O 5 4.PBr 3 phosophorus tribromide11. sulfur hexachloride SCl 6 5.SF 6 sulfur hexafluoride12. nitrogen triiodide NI 3 6.P 2 O 5 diphosphorus pentoxide13. carbon tetrabromide CBr 4 7. CCl 4 carbon tetrachloride14. diphosphorus pentoxide P 2 O 5


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