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Jongtai Jung (Professor/Ph. D) Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of Incheon Biodegradation.

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Presentation on theme: "Jongtai Jung (Professor/Ph. D) Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of Incheon Biodegradation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Jongtai Jung (Professor/Ph. D) Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of Incheon Biodegradation of Phenol : A Comparative Study With and Without Applying Magnetic Fields Jongtai Jung (Professor/Ph. D) (Professor/Ph. D) Major of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of Incheon

2 Jongtai Jung (Professor/Ph. D) Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of Incheon

3 Jongtai Jung (Professor/Ph. D) Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of Incheon

4 Jongtai Jung (Professor/Ph. D) Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of Incheon

5 Jongtai Jung (Professor/Ph. D) Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of Incheon Every community produces both liquid and solid wastes The Liquid portion –wastewater – is essentially the water supply of the community after it has been fouled by a variety of uses From the stand point of sources of generation, wastewater is defined as a combination of the liquid or water-carried wastes removed from residences, institution, and commercial and industrial establishment, together with such groundwater, surface water, and storm water as may be present Wastewater

6 Jongtai Jung (Professor/Ph. D) Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of Incheon

7 Jongtai Jung (Professor/Ph. D) Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of Incheon TreatmentDescriptions Preliminary Removal of wastewater constituents such as rags, stick, floatables, grit, and grease that may cause maintenance or operational problems with the treatment operations, processes, and ancillary systems Primary Removal of a portion of the suspended solids and organic matter from the wastewater Advanced Primary Enhanced removal of suspended solids and organic matter from the wastewater. Typically accomplished by chemical addition or Filtration

8 Jongtai Jung (Professor/Ph. D) Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of Incheon TreatmentDescriptions Secondary Removal of biodegradable organic matter (in solution or suspension) and suspended solids. Disinfection is also typically included in the definition of conventional secondary treatment Secondary with nutrient Removal Removal of biodegradable organics, suspended solids And nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, or both nitrogen and phosphorus) Tertiary Removal of residual suspended solids (after secondary treatment), usually by granular medium filtration or microscreen. Disinfection is also typically a part of tertiary treatment, Nutrient removal is often included in this definition Advanced Removal of dissolved and suspended materials remaining after normal biological treatment when required for various water reuse applications

9 Jongtai Jung (Professor/Ph. D) Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of Incheon 1)Physical Treatment Method - Screening, Comminution, Aeration, Mixing, Flocculation, - Sedimentation, Filtration, Adsorption, Gas Stripping, - Membrane Processes, etc 2) Chemical Treatment method - Disinfection, Precipitation, Coagulation, - Chemical oxidation, Ion exchange, etc Wastewater Treatment Methods(1)

10 Jongtai Jung (Professor/Ph. D) Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of Incheon 3) Biological treatment Method - Conventional Activated Sludge Processes, - Trickling Filter Processes - Rotating Biological Contactor Processes - Oxidation Pond Process - Anaerobic Biological Treatment, - A/O (Advanced Oxidation) Process a) Phostrip Process b) Bardenpho Process ** Nitrogen and Phosphate removal process Wastewater Treatment Methods(2)

11 Jongtai Jung (Professor/Ph. D) Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of Incheon 1)Purpose - To convert the colloidal and dissolved carbonaceous organic matter into various gases and into cell tissue. 2) Advantages - Less operation cost - Byproduct (CH 4 etc) Biological Treatment Process

12 Jongtai Jung (Professor/Ph. D) Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of Incheon 1. Depends on supplying oxygen – Aerobic process : presence of oxygen – Facultative process : indifferent to the presence of DO – Anaerobic process : absence of oxygen – A combination of the aerobic/anoxic or anaerobic process 2. Microorganisms 1) Suspended-growth processes 2) Immobilized-growth process - Attached microorganism - Entrapped microorganism Biological treatment Process

13 Jongtai Jung (Professor/Ph. D) Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of Incheon

14 Jongtai Jung (Professor/Ph. D) Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of Incheon

15 Jongtai Jung (Professor/Ph. D) Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of Incheon 1) Techniques – Entrapment in a gel, polymer matrix (like alginate, carageenan and polyurethane) – Attachment on the surface of inert supports (like diatomaceous earth, glass bead, and polymeric membranes) 2) Advantages - No wash out - Reuse of biomass - Operation flexibility (Possible to choose the different operating mode for reactors) - Protected from high concentrations of toxic compounds which are inhibitory - A desirable change in biological activity of the biomass Immobilization Techniques and Advantages

16 Jongtai Jung (Professor/Ph. D) Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of Incheon To study the effect of magnetic fields on the rate of phenol biodegradation using immobilized activated sludge with a recirculation flow bioreactor. The objective of this work

17 Jongtai Jung (Professor/Ph. D) Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of Incheon Fig.1 Batch recirculation flow biomagnetic reactor with immobilized microorganism Schematic Diagram

18 Jongtai Jung (Professor/Ph. D) Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of Incheon Experimental Set-up(1) 1) Recirculation flow-type bioreactor, - Reactor size : 6.4 cm in diameter 20 cm in length.. 2) Reservoir - Reservoir size : 11.4 cm in diameter 25.4 cm in length 3) Total reaction volume - 2 liters including the reservoir.

19 Jongtai Jung (Professor/Ph. D) Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of Incheon Experimental Set-up(2) 1) Culture medium ppm MgCl 2, ppm FeCl ppm MgSO 4, - 10 ppm K 2 PO 4 2) Air flow rate : 1.5 liter/min. 3) Recirculation flow rate : 325ml/min. 4) Magnets size - Rectangular block, - Dimension 5x15x1 cm.

20 Jongtai Jung (Professor/Ph. D) Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of Incheon Experiments set-up and Run(3) Chosen Substrate : Phenol Operating period : 1200 hr Magnet strength : 0.49 Tesla

21 Jongtai Jung (Professor/Ph. D) Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of Incheon Activated sludge(Mixed microbial population) from Waste water treatment plant 100 g alginate-immobilized activated sludge How to immobilize - Distilled water - Concentrated sludge(50 mg dry biomass/ g of pallet) - 0.5% sodium chloride - 1% sodium alginate mol/liter CaCl 2 - Distilled water and Conc. Pellets in a ratio 5:2 mixed with NaCl and Sodium Alginate in a blender - The homogeneous cell suspension was then extruded using a syringe pump into CaCl 2 solution to obtain the immobilized bacterial beads Microorganism

22 Jongtai Jung (Professor/Ph. D) Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of Incheon 1) Control experiment without applying magnetic field, 2) Experiments with magnetic south pole applied to the reactor, 3) Experiments with magnetic north pole applied to the reactor, 4) Experiments with alternating magnetic north and south poles. Experiments to be performed

23 Jongtai Jung (Professor/Ph. D) Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of Incheon 1)Rate of oxygen consumption (nmol/min∙ml) )2) Secreted protein concentration ( ㎍ /ml) 3) Rate of phenol biodegradation(ppm/hr) Parameters to be monitored

24 Jongtai Jung (Professor/Ph. D) Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of Incheon 1)Oxygen consumption : - Clark-type dissolved oxygen probe - Chart recorder 2) Phenol Concentration : - Varian 3300 Gas Chromatograph, - Detector : FID 3)Protein concentration : - Standard Lowry test(color response measurement) - Bovine serum albumin (Sigma Chemicals) as a protein standard Analytical Methods

25 Jongtai Jung (Professor/Ph. D) Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of Incheon Results and Discussions(1) - Results obtained from the above studies under the influence of north pole, south pole and during the control experiments are given in Table 1. - It can be seen that the highest average rate of phenol biodegradation and oxygen consumption occurred when the south pole was attached to the bioreactor. - When the magnetic south pole was applied, the biological oxidation activity (measured as dissolved oxygen consumption rate) increased by a factor of two as compared to the control experiment without magnetic field (0.615 to nmol/min/ml).

26 Jongtai Jung (Professor/Ph. D) Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of Incheon ControlSouth poleNorth pole Rate of O 2 consumption [nmol/min∙ml] ± (±7.5%) ± (±11%) ± (±13%) Secreted protein concentration [ ㎍ /ml ] ± 0.7 (1%) 2357 ± 46.2 (±2.5%) ND Rate of phenol biodegradation [ppm/hr ] ± 0.02 (±1%) ± (±5%) ± (±10%) Table 1. Effect of Magnetic North and South Pole Field on Phenol Biodegradation in Batch Recirculation Bioreactor 1) Value given represent mean±standard deviation of the mean. 2) The intervals of confidence are indicated in brackets. 3) The interval of confidence on the calculated values may be estimated at ±13% by maximizing the experiment errors. 4) ND, Not detectable, Control means without any magnetic field.

27 Jongtai Jung (Professor/Ph. D) Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of Incheon Results and Discussions(2) - Figure 2 shows the effect of magnetic fields on the rate of dissolved oxygen consumption. It can be seen that the rate increases markedly after 4 days under the influence of south pole as compared to the control and the north pole. - One of the measures of biodegradation is increase in activity (measured as rate of dissolved oxygen consumption) of the microbes in presence of a substrate such as phenol. - An increase in dissolved oxygen consumption indicates that it is being utilized by the microorganisms to break down phenol into its metabolic products which ultimately are CO 2 and water. - The phenol consumption rate was faster by nearly 30% in the experiment with south pole as compared to the control.

28 Jongtai Jung (Professor/Ph. D) Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of Incheon Fig.2 The effect of magnetic south and north pole field on the rate of O 2 consumption in batch recirculation bioreactor with immobilized activated sludge. Control means without magnet.

29 Jongtai Jung (Professor/Ph. D) Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of Incheon - Figure 3 indicates that the phenol concentration decreased rapidly under the influence of south pole in comparison to the north pole and the control. - The observed trend compares closely with that for the rate of dissolved oxygen consumption and increase in extracellular protein concentration. Results and Discussions(3)

30 Jongtai Jung (Professor/Ph. D) Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of Incheon Fig.3 The effect of magnetic south and north pole field on the rate of biodegradation when phenol was used as sole carbon source. Control means without magnet.

31 Jongtai Jung (Professor/Ph. D) Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of Incheon - Significant production of extracellular protein verified that biological activity was enhanced when a magnetic south pole was applied to the system as compared to the control as shown in Fig Microorganisms release enzymes extracellularly which in turn attack the substrate. A higher amount of proteins in the reaction medium is a positive measure of biodegradation. Results and Discussions(4)

32 Jongtai Jung (Professor/Ph. D) Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of Incheon Fig.4 The effect of magnetic south pole field on the protein concentration Protein was not detected in reactor with north pole. Control means without magnet.

33 Jongtai Jung (Professor/Ph. D) Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of Incheon - The poles were reversed several times. Initially no magnetic field was applied then the south pole was applied three times, and north pole twice alternately over the duration of the experiment. - The north pole was consistently inhibitory and the south pole activating as seen from the dissolved oxygen consumption rates in Fig. 5. Results and Discussions(5)

34 Jongtai Jung (Professor/Ph. D) Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of Incheon Fig.5 The effect of alternating magnetic field on the rate of O 2 consumption. AB control, BC with south pole, CD with north pole, DE with south pole, EF with north pole, FG with south pole.

35 Jongtai Jung (Professor/Ph. D) Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of Incheon 1)When the magnetic north pole was applied to the system, the decrease in concentration of the phenol was extremely slow, 2) There was a substantial decrease in oxygen consumption rate. This was due to an inhibitory effect on the microorganisms exposed to the magnetic north. 3) When magnetic south pole was applied to the system, the phenol concentration decreased rapidly and the rate of dissolved oxygen consumption along with excessive extracellular protein build-up were high. 4) This is due to an enhancing effect of the magnetic south pole. Oxygen consumption and phenol disappearance are also positive signs. Conclusions(1)

36 Jongtai Jung (Professor/Ph. D) Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of Incheon On this basis, we conclude - Bio-oxidation of phenol was enhanced by magnetic field south pole - Bio-oxidation of phenol inhibited by magnetic north pole irradiation Conclusions(2)

37 Jongtai Jung (Professor/Ph. D) Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of Incheon Thank you very much for listening

38 Jongtai Jung (Professor/Ph. D) Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of Incheon

39 Jongtai Jung (Professor/Ph. D) Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of Incheon

40 Jongtai Jung (Professor/Ph. D) Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of Incheon


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