Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Level II Agricultural Business Operations Horticulture.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Level II Agricultural Business Operations Horticulture."— Presentation transcript:

1 Level II Agricultural Business Operations Horticulture

2 2

3  Soil is made up of 3 main mineral components 1. Sand 2. Silt 3. Clay  Proportion of each determines soil type  12 different soil types/textures 3

4  Sand is gritty and breaks up if rolled into a ball  Silt is smooth, silky or floury  Clay is sticky when wet, shiny when smeared and holds shape 4

5 5

6 6  Soil is a valuable source often overlooked.  Amount of nutrients depends on soil type, rainfall, previous management and previous crop ◦ GAP – Good Agricultural Practice  How do you find out what’s in soil?  Soil sampling  Soil analysis

7  Sample every 4-5 years for permanent crops  Vegetable crops every 2-3 years  Yearly in glasshouse  Always sample a new or just rented field  Ideally October – February ◦ after previous crop has been harvested ◦ NOT following lime or fertiliser application

8  Walk a “W” or “S” pattern through field  25 cores per sample (avoiding greenery)  Send to laboratory for analysis

9  Useful equipment ◦ Soil auger (can also use a spade) ◦ Bucket ◦ Sealable plastic bag ◦ Permanent pen  Depth for collection depends on root zone ◦ Apples – 6” auger, collect under tree canopy ◦ Vegetables  90cm (36”) from Jan – Spring for Soil Nutrient Supply  60cm (24”) in autumn  30cm (12”) for shallow rooted veg

10 Major nutrients in soil  Nitrogen (N) – most important for plant growth  Phosphorus (P)  Potassium (K) – often referred to as Potash ◦ Others important are Sulphur (S), Magnesium (Mg) and Calcium (Ca) NPKNPK

11  Soil texture  May affect ◦ Soil structure ◦ Water availability and retention ◦ Cultivation methods ◦ Nutrient retention ◦ Cropping potential  Organic Matter  Separate element to soil test ◦ Must be requested ◦ Can affect how/what nutrients are availalbe ◦ Can affect plant protection products

12

13

14

15 1. pH 2. Lime requirement 3. Phosphorus index 4. Potassium index 5. Magnesium index

16

17  A measure of soil acidity or alkalinity  pH scale from 0 – 14  pH 7.0 is neutral  Less than pH 7.0 is acidic  Greater than pH 7.0 is alkaline ACIDICNEUT- RAL ALKALINE

18  Typical soil pH in Horticulture ranges from: AcidicNeutralAlkaline 5678 Most Vegetables Most Cut Flowers 6.5 Brassica Vegetables 7.5 Strawberries in soil 5.8 Apples

19  Soil pH determines nutrient availability for the plant!

20

21

22 22 Soil AcidityNPK pH 5.0 (Very Strong acidic) 53%34%52% pH 5.5 (Strongly acidic) 77%48%77% pH 6.0 (medium acidic) 89%52%100% Liming increases the availability of soil nutrients. Your fertiliser is more efficient if soil pH is at optimum level.

23  Conditions the soil  Improves the availability of major nutrients  Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sulphur, Calcium & Magnesium  Encourages micro-organisms in soil  Break down organic matter releasing N  Can help suppress some diseases (Club root)

24  Increases earthworm activity  Improves texture  Improves soil structure

25 Assume Field 9 is 3 acres (area). How many tonnes/acre of lime is required in field 9? Field area x lime requirement/acre 3 acres x 5.00 ton/acre =

26 Assume Field 9 is 3 acres. How many tonnes/acre of lime is required in field 9? Field area x lime requirement/acre 3 acres x 5.00 ton/acre = 15 ton/acre

27  Granulated lime  Pink lime  Potassic lime  Company specific products

28

29  Index 0 – 5 or 6 ◦ 0 – 2 = soil needs larger quantities of nutrient ◦ 3 = generally good index, though some nutrients may be needed ◦ 4 and above = generally do not require additional feeding  Phosphate – form of phosphorus that is taken up by the plant (P 2 O 5 )  Aids photosynthesis  Good for blooming and root growth

30

31  Index 0 – 5 or 6 ◦ 0 – 2 = soil needs larger quantities of nutrient ◦ 3 = generally good index, though some nutrients may be needed ◦ 4 and above = little to no additional feeding  Potash – form of potassium that is taken up by the plant (K 2 O)  Aids photosynthesis  Improves fruit quality

32  Valuable source of nutrients  Sample every 2-4 years  Use analysis to determine the amount of nutrients in the soil  The higher the soil nutrient reserves (Index), the lower the need for additional nutrients

33

34  The substance in which plants grow  Soil  Composts  Soil-less or loam-less composts  Consider container culture:  Growing media must provide  Physical characteristics  Balance between water and air  Biological factors  Chemical factors

35  Stability  Provide anchorage so that plant can root and be held securely in the container  Structure and texture  Enough air spaces between particles so that water and air can be held in the medium but also move through medium.  Water level for consistent growth

36  Air filled porosity: the number and size of pores (spaces) held between the particles of growing media.  Air filled porosity controls  Water drainage through the growing media  Availability of water to the plant(s)

37  Biological organisms (aka microbes) are present in growing media – even sterilised media  Promote helpful microbes through feeding  Deter harmful microbes by controlling moisture  Chemical properties are the nutrients in growing media  Know the nutrients available  Supplement with fertiliser if needed  Fertiliser requirements will vary for plant type and growing medium

38  Organic growing media – derived from plants ◦ Peat ◦ Wood-based ◦ Coir (coconut fibre) ◦ Green waste compost

39  Inorganic growing media – derived from minerals  Perlite  Vermiculite  Sand  Grit  Rockwool

40  Traditionally used as the main growing media for container grown crops.  Excellent water holding capacity  pH  Acidic  Low nutrient value, so fertilisers are usually added  Reduced use of peat will affect horticulture in future

41  ssional/visit-bog ssional/visit-bog

42  Mainly used in a mixture with peat to reduce the amount of peat  Composted bark, woodfibre, wood/paper waste or sawdust  Improves drainage  Low pH

43  Derived from the outer husk of coconuts  Used on its own in soft fruit production (in bags or containers) and in propagation  Uniform particle size giving good water- holding capacity  Does not hold nutrients well – supplementary liquid feeding required.

44  Many local authorities and some private companies produce green waste compost  High (but variable) nutrient content  High pH  Usually mixed with other growing media or used to add organic matter to soil

45  Most often used as additives to other organic growing media  Some can be used on their own in specific cultural situations  Hydroponics

46  Perlite ◦ Alumino-silicate ◦ Chemically inert ◦ Light weight ◦ Porous material  Increase water uptake  Vermiculite ◦ Derived from mica ◦ Can help balance nutrients ◦ Very light weight ◦ Often used to cover seeds in propagation

47  Sand ◦ Use sharp sand ◦ Used to improve drainage in other media  1:1 peat/sand mix – seed germination  3:1 peat/sand mix – growing on  Grit ◦ Crushed rock ◦ Larger particles than sand ◦ Mostly used for alpine plants in the growing medium or as top dressing

48  Ideally, contact a reliable supplier ◦ Companies spend ££ to develop good mixes for specific crops – take advantage!  Standard mixes include ◦ Cuttings ◦ Germinating seedlings ◦ Potting  Bedding  Tree & Shrub  Ericaceous (for acid loving plants)

49  Lily compost  Strawberry compost  Ericaceous compost  And more...

50  What is it?  Rotating or changing the type of crop in one field on a regular basis  Purpose is to ◦ Allow soil nutrients to replenish / avoid deficiency ◦ Avoid build up of disease in soil ◦ Avoid build up of pest population in soil

51  What horticulture crops benefit from crop rotation?  Any soil grown crop ◦ Vegetables ◦ Soft fruit (soil grown) ◦ Cut flowers (soil grown)  Why not container grown?

52  Orchards can be affected over the very long term  Removing an old orchard  Soil will benefit from green manure or grass ley  One year  Ploughed back in before replanting new orchard  Puts organic matter back into soil  Adds nutrients to soil

53

54 Home field Year 1 Potato or grass Year 2 Leeks Year 3 Legume / fertility Year 4 Brassica Year 5 carrot or parsnip

55  Growing media  Many options  Crop dependant  Crop rotation  Most important to soil grown crops with annual harvest  Also beneficial in longer term / more permanent crops  Prevents pest and disease build up  Prevents extreme nutrient deficiency

56 Learning Outcome 7 – Describe the growth stages of a crop group


Download ppt "Level II Agricultural Business Operations Horticulture."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google