UK Governments' policy pressures From Europe The Water Framework Directive – control of diffuse pollution to achieve, by 2027, ‘good’ status for inland surface waters, groundwater and coastal waters The Habitats Directive – favourable conservation status for Special Areas of conservation, such as the River Wye. The Freshwater Fish Directive – this aims to protect and improve the quality of fresh waters that support fish
Photo by Neil Preedy Phosphorus Nitrogen Sediment Pathogens Pesticides Prone to anecdote Multidisciplinary Complex Transcends scale
2. MOBILISATION describes the start of the journey from soil or source P, either as a solute (solubilised) or attached to colloids and particles (detached) or direct from fresh application (incidental) 3. DELIVERY/TRANSPORT describes the complex journey the solutes, colloids or particles take after mobilisation to connect to the stream 1. SOURCES include fertilizer applications, feed input to animals Infiltration-excess flow Saturation-excess flow Sub-surface flow Framework for understanding substance transfer to water from agriculture - the ‘transfer continuum’ (Haygarth et al., STOTEN, 344, 2005) 4.IMPACT Economic, sociological, biological, ecological
Published in J. Environ. Qual. 38:2012–2022 (2009).
The Diffuse Water Pollution from Agriculture (DWPA) user manual - a generic and definitive set of mitigation methods that might be applicable to England and Wales 106 pages, includes introduction, overview, 44 methods, 2 appendices and a glossary It concentrates on the three main pollutants of concern; nitrate, phosphorus (P) and faecal indicator organisms (FIOs) The UK ‘User Manual’ reducing diffuse pollution (Cuttle et al 2007)
The UK National Demonstration Test Catchment Platform Wensum (Norfolk) Arable farming Consortium includes: University of East Anglia, Scott Wilson, Cranfield University, British Geological Survey, Entec, NIAB and others... Avon (Hampshire) Mixed lowland farming Consortium includes: ADAS, University of Reading, University of Bristol, QMUL, ENTEC and others... Eden (Cumbria) Livestock and mixed farming Consortium includes: Lancaster University, Newcastle University, Durham University, Newton Rigg, Eden Rivers Trust, CEH and others... Focusing effort on 3 catchments but linking closely to other catchment work
38 staff, 8 organizations Involve as many staff as possible to provide group consensus, rather than to associate few staff in more detail Open door to collaborations, shared activities, learning together Involved the widest spectrum of capability Building a new way of working
Nutrient monitoring in the Eden DTC Newton Rigg demonstration catchment, March 2011 Morland catchment outlet station, March 2011 Pow catchment outlet station, September 2011 Dacre catchment outlet station, July 2011 10 sub-stations for installation throughout the Eden catchment – 6 installed to date
Eden Catchment Farm Demonstration Centre On-farm offices and location A focal point for engagement National and local stakeholder events
Agricultural soil total P concentrations and distribution of P compounds (Stutter et al., 2012). Pie-chart segments denote P compound distributions as means of the extract P data (n = number of soils per country), taken from thirteen literature sources using soil 31P NMR studies
Phosphorus Nitrogen Sediment Pathogens Pesticides Prone to anecdote Multidisciplinary Complex Transcends scale Source, mobilisation, delivery, impact = continuum From fine scale processes, molecular to nation Demonstration platforms Stakeholders, awareness, value Sustainable P management A wicked problem, a bright future?