Presentation on theme: "How do you get energy? How is this similar and different to the ways that other organisms get their energy? Give specific examples. - Write in complete."— Presentation transcript:
How do you get energy? How is this similar and different to the ways that other organisms get their energy? Give specific examples. - Write in complete sentences. At least 5 lines.
Photosynthesis – process where plants use energy from the sun to make sugar; this allows energy from the sun to enter the ecosystem Photosynthesis Equation: Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) + Water (H 2 O) + Solar Energy Sugar (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) + Oxygen (O 2 )
CO₂ + H₂O + sunlight -- C₆H₁₂O₆ + O₂ AND Carbon dioxide + water +sunlight glucose (sugar) and oxygen
Producer – organism that makes its own food; also known as autotrophs Consumer – organism that gets its energy by eating other organisms; also known as heterotrophs Producers get their energy directly from the sun and consumers get their energy indirectly from the sun.
Deep-ocean communities exist where there is no light. Bacteria living near hydrothermal vents make their own food through a process called chemosynthesis. These bacteria are the producers in this community and make it possible for worms, crabs, mussels, and barnacles to exist there.
Types of Consumers in an Ecosystem Energy SourceExamples Herbivoreproducerscows, sheep, deer, and grasshoppers Carnivoreother consumerslions, hawks, snakes, spiders, alligators, and whales Omnivoreboth producers and consumers Bears, pigs, gorillas, rats, raccoons, cockroaches, and humans Decomposerbreaks down dead organism fungi and bacteria Scavengerdead consumersvultures, hyenas, crows, flies
Cellular Respiration – breaking down food to yield energy Respiration Equation: Sugar (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) + Oxygen (O 2 ) Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) + Water (H 2 O) + Energy (ATP) This is the opposite of the photosynthesis equation!
Why do you think it is important that photosynthesis and respiration are opposite processes?
Each time one organism eats another organism, a transfer of energy occurs. We can trace the transfer of energy as it travels through an ecosystem by studying food chains, food webs, and trophic levels.
Food Chain – a sequence in which energy is transferred from one organism to the next as each organism eats another organism Food Web – shows many feeding relationships that are possible in an ecosystem
What happened as you moved through the food chains yesterday? Why do you start back at 10,000 energy points each time you went back to producer? Who is involved in every food chain?
Give me three things you liked about class yesterday and today
Complete the handout tonight
Trophic Level – each step through which energy is transferred Energy Loss Each time energy is transferred, some is lost as heat. Organisms use much of the remaining energy to carry out the functions of living things, such as producing new cells, regulating body temperature, and moving. About 90% of the energy at each trophic level is lost and only 10% can be transferred to the next trophic level.
Energy Pyramid – shows the loss of energy from one trophic level to the next
Because so much energy is lost at each level, there are fewer organisms at higher trophic levels. Loss of energy from trophic level to trophic level limits the number of trophic levels in an ecosystem.
What are three products that you recycle? Where do these products come from? Where do these products go after you recycle them? Write in complete sentences. At least 5 lines.
Carbon Cycle – process by which carbon is cycled between the atmosphere, land, water, and organisms How the Carbon Cycle Works: Producers convert carbon dioxide in the atmosphere into carbohydrates during photosynthesis. When consumers eat producers they obtain carbon from the carbohydrates. As consumers break down food during cellular respiration, they release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
Carbon can also be stored: Some is converted into energy storing molecules like fats and oils which are not released until the organism dies. Some is converted into carbonates, which make up bones and shells. Some forms limestone rock. Some is found in fossils and fossil fuels.
When we burn fossil fuels we release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. In the year 2000, cars were the source of 1/3 of all of the carbon dioxide emitted in the U.S. Increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere may lead to global warming.
Nitrogen makes up 78% of the gases in the atmosphere. Most organisms cannot use atmospheric nitrogen. It must be altered, or fixed, before organisms can use it. Nitrogen-fixing Bacteria – bacteria that can fix atmospheric nitrogen into nitrogen compounds
How the Nitrogen Cycle Works: Nitrogen-fixing bacteria live in nodules on the roots of plants called legumes. Legumes include beans, peas, and clover. Nitrogen produced by the bacteria is released into the soil. Plants get their nitrogen from the soil. Animals get their nitrogen directly or indirectly from plants.
Nitrogen is released from waste, corpses, and other parts of organisms when they are broken down by decomposers. Nitrogen is then released back into the atmosphere.
Phosphorus Cycle – the movement of phosphorus from the environment to organisms and then back to the environment How the Phosphorus Cycle Works: Phosphorus enters water or soil when rocks erode. Plants get phosphorus from the soil. Animals get their phosphorus directly or indirectly from plants. Phosphorus is released back into the soil through animal waste or when plants or animals are decomposed.
Fertilizers which are used to maximize plant growth contain nitrogen and phosphorus. If used in excess, fertilizers can enter terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems through runoff. In aquatic ecosystems excess nitrogen and phosphorus can cause algal blooms which can deplete the ecosystem of oxygen, causing fish and other organisms to die.
Work in groups of 3: Each person will be assigned a different cycle: carbon, nitrogen, or phosphorus. Write down everything you know about your cycle. See what you can remember. Do not use your notes. ▪ You may use bullets for your answers. ▪ You should try to come up with a minimum of 5 things you can tell me about your cycle. Switch papers. Have the other members of your group add or make corrections to what you wrote. Switch again and keep adding/ correcting. Have a group discussion,
What would happen to the practice fields around Sun Valley High School if no one mowed or took care of them for a week? A month? A year? 10 years? 100 years? Describe the changes you would see over time. – Write in complete sentences. At least 5 lines.
Ecological Succession – a gradual process of change and replacement of some or all species in a community; may take hundreds or thousands of years Types of Succession Primary Succession – type of succession that occurs on a surface where no ecosystem existed before ▪ Examples: rocks, sand dunes, newly formed volcanic islands Secondary Succession – more common; occurs on a surface where an ecosystem has previously existed ▪ Examples: a mowed lawn, a forest after a fire
Pioneer Species – the first organisms to colonize any newly available area and begin the process of ecological succession Climax Community – a final, stable community Example: a forest with large, mature trees
Natural fires are the cause of secondary succession in some communities. Some tree species can only release their seeds after they have been exposed to intense heat. Minor forest fires remove the accumulations of brush and deadwood that would otherwise contribute to major fires.
This occurs when farmland has been abandoned. Once abandoned grasses and weeds grow rapidly. Over time taller plants and even trees will grow.
On new islands created by volcanic eruptions, in areas exposed when a glacier retreats, or any other surface that has not previously supported life, primary succession can occur. Primary succession is much slower than secondary because there is no soil. The first species to colonize bare rock will probably be lichens and bacteria. Over time the pioneer species will break down the rock and form soil.
Give an example of primary succession in a city.