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OBJECTIVES Summarize the steps of the water cycle in a diagram. Explain how carbon and oxygen are cycled through an ecosystem. Describe why nitrogen must.

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Presentation on theme: "OBJECTIVES Summarize the steps of the water cycle in a diagram. Explain how carbon and oxygen are cycled through an ecosystem. Describe why nitrogen must."— Presentation transcript:

1 OBJECTIVES Summarize the steps of the water cycle in a diagram. Explain how carbon and oxygen are cycled through an ecosystem. Describe why nitrogen must cycle through an ecosystem. Summarize the 3 major conversions of nitrogen in ecosystems. Explain why it is important that phosphorus be cycled through an ecosystem.

2 VOCABULARY Carbon Cycle Respiration Nitrogen cycle Phosphorus cycle

3 OBJECTIVES Summarize the steps of the water cycle in a diagram. Explain how carbon and oxygen are cycled through an ecosystem. Describe why nitrogen must cycle through an ecosystem. Summarize the 3 major conversions of nitrogen in ecosystems. Explain why it is important that phosphorus be cycled through an ecosystem.

4 CYCLES Just as organisms are interconnected to each other they are connected to the physical environment as well. Name several examples of non-living things that organisms, such as yourself, require to live. Oxygen, water, carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus are a few examples of these that we will discuss in this section. Not what roles they play though. We already talked about that in the previous chapter. You will learn how these substances cycle through the ecosystems so that they may maintain their availability to living organisms.

5 CYCLES IN NATURE Biogeochemical cycles = Cycles in which water and minerals are recycled and reused by moving from the non-living portion of the environment into living things and back again. Water Cycle Carbon Cycle Nitrogen Cycle

6 WATER CYCLE The water cycle continuously moves water between the atmosphere, the land, and the oceans. We see it first hand in several forms. Rain falls and is soaked up by the ground, or it pools where it’s drank, or it will sit and evaporate back up into the atmosphere. Since it’s a cycle there is no starting point. We’ll start with water forming in the atmosphere.

7 IN THE MARGIN OF YOUR NOTES, IDENTIFY THE STEPS NUMBERED 1-6. Condensation

8 At any moment, the atmosphere contains an astounding 37.5 million billion gallons of water, in the invisible vapor phase. This is enough water to cover the entire surface of the Earth (land and ocean) with one inch of rain. First, water vapor condenses in the cool air of the sky into the clouds we see. Even if there’s no clouds there is still plenty of water there. CONDENSATION

9 When enough water accumulates in the atmosphere it collects a water droplets, gets heavy, and falls back to Earth. This, what we call rain, is also known as precipitation. PRECIPITATION

10 Some of this water percolates, or is absorbed or soaked into the soil and becomes groundwater. Other water, called runoff, flows and accumulates across the surface of Earth and runs into rivers, lakes, and oceans. RUN OFF & PERCOLATION

11 Once here if not consumed, the water is heated by the sun and reenters the atmosphere as water vapor by evaporation. Water also evaporates from trees and plants in a process called transpiration (& animals in perspiration…sweating). TRANSPIRATION & EVAPORATION

12 IN THE MARGIN OF YOUR NOTES, IDENTIFY THE STEPS NUMBERED 1-6. Condensation

13 NITROGEN CYCLE Nitrogen, another essential element, must also be cycled. The atmosphere is about 78% nitrogen gas, N 2. But most organisms cannot use nitrogen gas. The nitrogen cycle is all about getting the nitrogen in the atmosphere into forms that can be used by organisms. Recall, Nitrogen is used for The amino acids of proteins. In the nitrogenous bases of DNA & RNA The nitrogen cycle is the process in which nitrogen circulates among the air, soil, water, and organisms in an ecosystem.

14 Nitrogen-fixing bacteria live in the soil and on the roots of some plants. In a process called nitrogen fixation, bacteria convert nitrogen gas, N 2, into ammonia, NH 3. N 2  Nitrogen Fixation (Bacteria)  NH 3 NITROGEN CYCLE

15 During ammonification, nitrogen from animal waste or decaying bodies is returned to the soil as ammonia by bacteria and decomposers. NITROGEN CYCLE

16 During nitrification, ammonia, NH 3, is converted to nitrite and then nitrate NO 3. Try not to confuse this with nitrogen fixation. NITROGEN CYCLE

17 Assimilation is the process in which plants absorb nitrogen. When an animal eats a plant, nitrogen compounds become part of the animal’s body. NITROGEN CYCLE

18 During denitrification, nitrate, NO 3, is changed to nitrogen gas, N 2, which returns to the atmosphere. NITROGEN CYCLE

19 NITROGEN CYCLE: ON YOUR HANDOUTS, LABEL THE PARTS OF THE CYCLE.

20 NITROGEN CYCLE: MACRO PERSPECTIVE Ammonification Nitrogen fixation Nitrification Denitrification Assimilation

21 CARBON AND OXYGEN CYCLES Carbon and oxygen are critical for life on Earth, and their cycles are tied closely together. Just as with water, these are both cycled so organisms always have a supply available. The carbon cycle is the continuous movement of carbon from the nonliving environment into living things and back.

22 Starting with atmospheric carbon dioxide, the carbon cycle begins with plants and other autotrophs absorbing CO 2 and converting into usable sugars and starches. This process is known as photosynthesis. THE CARBON CYCLE

23 Animals then eat this vegetation. They break down the sugars & starches made by plants and covert it into ATP, the energy of metabolism. In the process, they release CO 2 back into the atmosphere. This process is called cellular respiration. THE CARBON CYCLE

24 All life, plants, animals & everything else, eventually dies. When it does it is broken down, decays, and collects as fossil fuels. Fossil fuels, like oil and gasoline, accumulate after millions of years of this process of death and decay. THE CARBON CYCLE

25 The burning of this fuel, called combustion, also releases carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere.

26 THE CARBON CYCLE

27 THE CARBON CYCLE: ON YOUR HANDOUTS, LABEL THE PARTS OF THE CYCLE.

28 THE CARBON CYCLE COMBUSTION Man also plays a role. We are responsible for burning fossil fuels, eating, releasing carbon dioxide, and dying. These all contribute to the cycling of carbon.

29 CONCEPTS SUMMARY These are the things you have been exposed to and need to know: 1.What is the difference between food chains and food webs. 2.Why energy is lost in a food chain. 3.The 3 main cycles of matter. 4.Why they are important. 5.What are the steps in the cycles.

30 1. Which of the following organisms can transform light energy into chemical energy? A. organism 1 B. organism 4 C. organism 7 D. organism 9 2. If a disease killed off all of organism 2, which of the following organisms would be most affected? A. organism 3 B. organism 7 C. organism 8 D. organism 9 ANSWERS 3.. During which of the following months is the rate of photosynthesis greatest? A. May B. March C. January D. September 4. If the data were obtained from the atmosphere over an evergreen forest, the curve likely would A. rise from February to May and fall from August to November. B. vary less throughout the year. C. rise steadily from January to December. D. fall steadily from January to December. 5. If the y-axis of a graph displayed the rate of transpiration of a deciduous forest, the curve likely would A. rise from February to May and fall from August to November. B. vary little throughout the year. C. rise steadily from January to December. D. fall steadily from January to December.

31 PHOSPHORUS CYCLE Like water, carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen, phosphorus must be cycled in order for an ecosystem to support life. Remember, phosphorus is an important element in ATP and DNA. It must cycle just like the other molecules. The phosphorus cycle is the movement of phosphorus in different chemical forms from the surroundings to organisms and then back to the surroundings.

32 CYCLE ILLUSTRATION ASSIGNMENT Due Next Tuesday. Choose any cycle studied. Find pictures to represent all the participants in this cycle and make an illustration of this cycle. Briefly outline this cycle in a paragraph on your poster. Discuss details such as: The importance of the cycle.

33 CYCLE ILLUSTRATION ASSIGNMENT Due Next Tuesday. Choose any cycle studied. Find pictures to represent all the participants in this cycle and make an illustration of this cycle. Briefly outline this cycle in a paragraph on your poster. Discuss details such as: The importance of the cycle.

34 CYCLE ILLUSTRATION ASSIGNMENT Due Next Tuesday. Choose any cycle studied. Find pictures to represent all the participants in this cycle and make an illustration of this cycle. Briefly outline this cycle in a paragraph on your poster. Discuss details such as: The importance of the cycle.

35 CYCLE ILLUSTRATION ASSIGNMENT Due Next Tuesday. Choose any cycle studied. Find pictures to represent all the participants in this cycle and make an illustration of this cycle. Briefly outline this cycle in a paragraph on your poster. Discuss details such as: The importance of the cycle.

36 SECTION 2 DISCUSSION QUESTION Construct a food chain with these organisms, starting with the primary producer at the bottom and the top consumer at the top. Human, grass, cow. Label who’s the producer, who’s the herbivore, who’s the consumers, and who’s the omnivore. If there are 5050 calories produced in the producer level, how many calories are made available to the top consumer?

37 Each number represents an organism in the food web. 1. Which of the following organisms can transform light energy into chemical energy? A organism 1 B organism 4 C organism 7 D organism 9 2. If a disease killed off all of organism 2, which of the following organisms would be most affected? A organism 3 B organism 7 C organism 8 D organism 9

38 SECTION 3: DISCUSSION Energy can be dispersed through an ecosystem by organisms consuming others, but organic compounds and certain necessary resources, like water, nitrogen, phosphorus, and carbon, are cycled. Choose one of the 4 cycles and discuss 3 ways this matter is cycled and 3 ways the cycling of this matter is important. You have 3 minutes. Write them down and be prepared to speak about them.

39 MRS. RYLAND PLACED A WATER PLANT IN A TEST TUBE, FILLED THE TEST TUBE WITH WATER, AND THEN INVERTED THE TUBE IN A BEAKER HALF FILLED WITH WATER. SHE PLACED A LAMP NEXT TO THE BEAKER AND TURNED ON THE LIGHT (SEE FIGURE 1). THE NEXT DAY THE CLASS SAW THAT THE LEVEL OF WATER IN THE TEST TUBE HAD GONE DOWN (SEE FIGURE 2). After seeing these results, Ella wrote four questions in her lab notebook. Question 1: Why did the water level in the test tube go down? Question 2: Is light needed to change the water level in the test tube? Question 3: Did light cause the water level in the test tube to go down? Question 4: Would a different type of plant change the water level in the test tube? Ella set up an experiment to investigate one of her questions. She set up one test tube to look like Figure 1. She set up another test tube similar to Figure 1 but without a lamp, and placed it in a dark closet. A day later, Ella checked the water level in each test tube. 1. Which question could best be answered with her experiment? A Question 1 B Question 2 C Question 3 D Question 4 2. What was the dependent variable in the student’s experiment? A the amount of light B the amount of time C the water level in the test tube D the type of plant in the test tube 3. What is the main substance found in the top part of the test tube labeled X in Figure 2? A oxygen B nothing C water vapor D carbon dioxide

40

41 1. During which of the following months is the rate of photosynthesis greatest? A.May B.March C.January D.September

42 2. If the data were obtained from the atmosphere over an evergreen forest, the curve likely would A. rise from February to May and fall from August to November. B. vary less throughout the year. C. rise steadily from January to December. D. fall steadily from January to December.

43 3. If the y-axis of a graph displayed the rate of transpiration of a deciduous forest, the curve likely would A. rise from February to May and fall from August to November. B. vary little throughout the year. C. rise steadily from January to December. D. fall steadily from January to December.

44 QUICK LAB: IN-CLASS EXERCISE/DEMO (20PTS) You are a part of the carbon cycle. Every time you exhale, you release carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) into the atmosphere. But the CO 2 doesn’t stay CO 2 for long. Questions: 1. Watch the demonstration and note the color change of the bromthymol solution. 2. What do you think happened to the CO 2 that was exhaled into the solution? 3. How do plants, even aquatic plants, affect the carbon cycle. 4.Draw the exchange of the CO 2 and O 2 in the atmosphere and the processes that are involved.

45 PHOSPHORUS CYCLE Phosphorus is often found in soil and rock as calcium phosphate, which dissolves in water to form phosphate. The roots of plants absorb phosphate. Humans and animals that eat the plants reuse the organic phosphorus. When the humans and animals die, phosphorus is returned to the soil.

46 THE PHOSPHORUS CYCLE


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