Presentation on theme: "Why and how is matter recycled in our ecosystem?"— Presentation transcript:
1Why and how is matter recycled in our ecosystem? The Cycles of MatterWhy and how is matter recycled in our ecosystem?
2Cycles of MatterAll things in nature are made of matter. Nature recycles matter because matter cannot be created or destroyed.Matter can only be transformed from one form to another.Matter remains in nature, cycling from one form to another.
3The Carbon CycleCarbon is an essential component of all biomolecules, such as protein and fats.Carbon is also found in carbon dioxide and fossil fuels.
4The Carbon CycleCarbon dioxide (CO2) is released into the atmosphere through respiration, the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation.Plants take in carbon dioxide to help make glucose in photosynthesis.Oxygen is released as an end product.Consumers eat other organisms to obtain carbon, as well as other nutrients.
5The Carbon CycleAs consumers break down food to obtain energy and nutrition, some of the carbon is released back into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide.Carbon dioxide is an end product of cellular respiration.Even plants perform cellular respiration, so plants do release some carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere.
6The Carbon CycleSometimes, carbon gets trapped in carbon sinks. These are large reservoirs of carbon.Carbonates and limestone are good examples.
7The Carbon CycleAlso, dead organisms can be deposited underground, and the carbon in their bodies can form fossil fuels.What are some examples?
9Humans and the Carbon Cycle Recall that the burning of fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.Many modern technologies rely on these fuels for power.
10Humans and the Carbon Cycle While carbon dioxide remains a trace gas, the amount of CO2 has steadily increased in the past century.
11Humans and the Carbon Cycle Recall that CO2 is a greenhouse gas. While we need CO2 to keep Earth warm, too much CO2 in the atmosphere has the potential to raise temperatures too high.The increase in absorbed solar energy can possibly cause shifts in global climate patterns – year-to-year weather and precipitation cycles – otherwise known as climate change.
12Humans and the Carbon Cycle Furthermore, the ocean itself serves as a carbon sink. This means that an increase in atmospheric CO2 will raise the level of CO2 in the ocean.As the ocean’s CO2 levels rise, the pH of ocean water drops, which has the potential to destroy marine ecosystems.
13The Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen is a key component of our proteins. Nitrogen makes up 78% of our atmosphere, but we can’t use gaseous nitrogen as a nutrient.
14The Nitrogen CycleInstead, nitrogen gas (N2) has to be converted to ammonia first.Special bacteria called nitrogen fixers perform this key role.
15The Nitrogen CycleOnce nitrogen gas has been fixed, the ammonia can be converted to nitrates and nitrites, which are absorbed by plants for nutrition.Once again, consumers have to eat other organisms to obtain nitrogen.
16The Nitrogen CycleDecomposers are vital to the health of ecosystems, because they break down dead organisms into organic matter.Decomposers return nitrogen to the soil, where other plants can absorb it.Finally, other bacteria can convert some of the soil nitrogen back into nitrogen gas.
18The Phosphorus CyclePhosphorus is a key molecule in nucleic acids (DNA and RNA).Phosphorus is readily found in rocks and earth.
19The Phosphorus CyclePhosphate is released from rock due to weathering, the breakdown of rock. Erosion then transports phosphate into the soil or into water sources.In either case, phosphate can be absorbed by plants and other producers. Once again, consumers have to eat other organisms for phosphate.
20The Phosphorus CycleSometimes phosphate can collect at the bottom of large bodies of water, and form new rock.Finally, decomposition returns phosphate to the soil, as it does other nutrients.
22Humans and the Nitrogen/Phosphorus Cycles Human farming activities often use fertilizers to stimulate future plant growth. Fertilizers contain additional nitrogen and phosphorus.However, excessive use of fertilizer can lead to undesired plant growth in other ecosystems via runoff.
23Humans and the Nitrogen/Phosphorus Cycles Algal blooms are rapid and massive growths of algae. Algal blooms are particularly dangerous to local ecosystems, since they can drain vital nutrients from the ecosystem.Algal blooms often occur when excess nitrogen and phosphorus is dumped into water sources.
24Humans and the Nitrogen/Phosphorus Cycles Also, adding too much nitrogen and phosphorus can lead to oversaturation of the soil. This means that other nutrients are lost, which damages the long-term stability of that ecosystem.Lastly, plants that adapted to low levels of nitrogen can be put at risk of extinction, as they are not adapted to survive in high-nitrogen ecosystems.