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Albia Dugger Miami Dade College Cecie Starr Christine Evers Lisa Starr www.cengage.com/biology/starr Chapter 42 Ecosystems (Sections 42.7 - 42.10)

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Presentation on theme: "Albia Dugger Miami Dade College Cecie Starr Christine Evers Lisa Starr www.cengage.com/biology/starr Chapter 42 Ecosystems (Sections 42.7 - 42.10)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Albia Dugger Miami Dade College Cecie Starr Christine Evers Lisa Starr Chapter 42 Ecosystems (Sections )

2 42.7 The Water Cycle 97% of Earth’s water is in its oceans Sunlight energy drives the water cycle by causing evaporation – water vapor in the atmosphere condenses into clouds, and returns to Earth’s surface as precipitation water cycle Movement of water among Earth’s oceans, atmosphere, and the freshwater reservoirs on land

3 Environmental Water Reservoirs Reservoir Volume (10 3 cubic kilometers) Ocean 1,370,000 Polar ice, glaciers 29,000 Groundwater4,000 Lakes, rivers 230 Atmosphere (water vapor) 14

4 The Water Cycle

5 Fig. 42.8, p. 715 Land Ocean Precipitation onto the land Surface and groundwater flow Evaporation from land plants (transporation) Precipitation into ocean Atmosphere Windborne water vapor Evaporation from ocean The Water Cycle

6 Fig. 42.8, p. 715 Land Ocean Surface and groundwater flow Evaporation from land plants (transporation) Precipitation into ocean Atmosphere Precipitation onto the land Windborne water vapor Evaporation from ocean Stepped Art The Water Cycle

7 How and Where Water Moves Precipitation that falls on any specific area of land drains into its particular watershed A watershed may be as small as a valley that feeds a stream, or as large as the Mississippi River Basin (drains 41% of the continental United States) watershed Land area that drains into a particular stream or river

8 How Water Moves (cont.) Most precipitation seeps into the ground (groundwater): Clay-rich soils hold the most soil water and sandy soils hold the least Water that drains through soil layers often collects in natural underground reservoirs (aquifers) The flow of groundwater and surface water (runoff) slowly returns water to oceans

9 Key Terms groundwater Soil water and water in aquifers soil water Water between soil particles aquifer Porous rock layer that holds some groundwater runoff Water that flows over soil into streams

10 Nutrients in Water Important nutrients such as carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus have soluble forms that can be moved from place to place by flowing water Runoff from heavily fertilized lawns and agricultural fields carries dissolved phosphates and nitrates into streams and lakes, causing eutrophication

11 Limited Fresh Water Groundwater (a limited resource) supplies drinking water to about half of the United States population Water is being drawn from aquifers faster than natural processes can replenish it (groundwater overdrafts) In coastal aquifers, salt water moves in and replaces fresh water (saltwater intrusion) In the US, about 80% of the water withdrawn for human use ends up irrigating agricultural fields

12 Groundwater Troubles

13 Key Concepts The Water Cycle Most of Earth’s water is in its oceans Only a tiny fraction is fresh water Evaporation, condensation, precipitation, and flow of rivers and streams moves water Water plays a role in other nutrient cycles because it carries soluble forms of those nutrients with it

14 Animation: Threats to Aquifers

15 42.8 The Carbon Cycle The carbon cycle is an atmospheric cycle Most carbon is stored in rocks – it enters food webs as gaseous carbon dioxide or bicarbonate dissolved in water carbon cycle Movement of carbon, mainly between the oceans, atmosphere, and living organisms atmospheric cycle Biogeochemical cycle in which a gaseous form of an element plays a significant role

16 6 Steps in the Carbon Cycle Carbon in rocks is largely unavailable to living organisms 1.Carbon enters land food webs when plants use CO 2 from the air in photosynthesis 2.CO 2 released by aerobic respiration returns to the atmosphere 3.Carbon diffuses between atmosphere and ocean; bicarbonate forms when CO 2 dissolves in seawater

17 6 Steps in the Carbon Cycle 4.Marine producers take up bicarbonate for photosynthesis; marine organisms release CO 2 from aerobic respiration 5.Many marine organisms incorporate carbon into shells Shells become part of sediments Sediments become limestone and chalk in Earth’s crust 6.Burning fossil fuels derived from ancient remains of plants puts additional CO 2 into the atmosphere

18 6 Steps in the Carbon Cycle

19 Fig , p. 716 Marine organisms sedimentation Earth’s crust death, burial, compaction over millions of years Fossil fuels Dissolved carbon in ocean Land food webs diffusion between atmosphere and ocean aerobic respiration Atmospheric CO 2 photosynthesis burning fossil fuels Burning of fossil fuels derived from the ancient remains of plants puts additional carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Many marine organisms incorporate carbon into their shells. After they die, these shells become part of the sediments. Over time, the sediments become carbon-rich rocks such as limestone and chalk in Earth’s crust. Marine producers take up bicarbonate for use in photosynthesis, and marine organisms release carbon dioxide from aerobic respiration. Carbon diffuses between the atmosphere and the ocean. Bicarbonate forms when carbon dioxide dissolves in seawater. Carbon returns to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide when plants and other land organisms carry out aerobic respiration. Carbon enters land food webs when plants take up carbon dioxide from the air for use in photosynthesis Steps in the Carbon Cycle

20 Fig , p. 716 Land food webs Atmospheric CO 2 photosynthesis 1 aerobic respiration 2 Dissolved carbon in ocean diffusion between atmosphere and ocean 3 Marine organisms 4 sedimentation Earth’s crust 5 death, burial, compaction over millions of years Fossil fuels burning fossil fuels 6 Stepped Art 6 Steps in the Carbon Cycle

21 Animation: Carbon Cycle To play movie you must be in Slide Show Mode PC Users: Please wait for content to load, then click to play Mac Users: CLICK HERECLICK HERE

22 Carbon, the Greenhouse Effect, and Global Warming Atmospheric CO 2 and other “greenhouse gases” help keep Earth warm enough for life through the greenhouse effect greenhouse effect Warming of Earth’s lower atmosphere and surface as a result of heat trapped by greenhouse gases

23 Three Steps in the Greenhouse Effect 1.Earth’s atmosphere reflects some sunlight energy back into space 2.Some light energy reaches and warms Earth’s surface 3.Earth’s warmed surface emits heat energy Some escapes into space Some is absorbed and emitted in all directions by greenhouse gases

24 Three Steps in the Greenhouse Effect

25 Fig , p. 717 heat energy light energy Three Steps in the Greenhouse Effect

26 Animation: Greenhouse Effect

27 Global Warming Human-induced increase in atmospheric greenhouse gases correlates with global climate change Current atmospheric CO 2 is the highest in 420,000 years – and climbing global climate change A rise in temperature and shifts in other climate patterns

28 Key Concepts The Carbon Cycle Most of Earth’s carbon is tied up in rocks, but organisms take carbon up from water or the air Carbon dioxide is one of the atmospheric greenhouse gases that help keep Earth’s surface warm Increasing carbon dioxide in the air is the most likely cause of climate change

29 BBC Video: Carbon Dioxide’s Impact on Our Oceans

30 42.9 The Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen moves in an atmospheric cycle (nitrogen cycle) Atmospheric nitrogen (N 2 or gaseous nitrogen) is Earth’s main nitrogen reservoir, but most organisms can’t use N 2 nitrogen cycle Movement of nitrogen among the atmosphere, soil, and water, and into and out of food webs

31 Bacteria and Nitrogen Conversions Only certain bacteria can make nitrogen available to other organisms, or return N 2 to the atmosphere nitrogen fixation Bacteria use nitrogen gas (N 2 ) to form ammonia (NH 3 ) nitrification Bacteria convert ammonium (NH 4 + ) to nitrates (NO 3 - ) denitrification Bacteria convert nitrates or nitrites (NO 2 - ) to nitrogen gas

32 6 Steps in the Nitrogen Cycle 1.Nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria in soil, water, or lichens break bonds in N 2 and form ammonia, which is ionized in water as ammonium (NH 4 + ) and taken up by plants 2.Another group of nitrogen-fixing bacteria forms nodules on roots of peas and other legumes 3.Consumers get nitrogen by eating plants or one another; bacterial and fungal decomposers break down wastes and remains and return ammonium to the soil

33 6 Steps in the Nitrogen Cycle 4.Nitrification converts ammonium to nitrates: Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaeans convert ammonium to nitrite (NO 2 – ), Bacteria convert nitrites to nitrates (NO 3 – ) 5.Nitrates are taken up and used by producers 6.Denitrifying bacteria use nitrate for energy and release nitrogen gas into the atmosphere

34 The Nitrogen Cycle

35 Fig , p. 718 nitrogen fixation by bacteria Soil ammonium (NH 4 + ) uptake by producers Land food webs Waste and remains uptake by producers decomposition by bacteria and fungi denitrification by bacteria nitrification by bacteria Soil nitrates (NO 3 – ) The Nitrogen Cycle

36 Fig , p. 718 nitrogen fixation by bacteria Soil ammonium (NH 4 + ) Land food webs 1 uptake by producers 2 Waste and remains decomposition by bacteria and fungi 3 denitrification by bacteria 6 nitrification by bacteria Soil nitrates (NO 3 – ) 4 Stepped Art uptake by producers 5 The Nitrogen Cycle

37 Animation: Nitrogen Cycle To play movie you must be in Slide Show Mode PC Users: Please wait for content to load, then click to play Mac Users: CLICK HERECLICK HERE

38 Human Effects on the Nitrogen Cycle Manufactured ammonia fertilizers increase the concentration of hydrogen ions (H + ) as well as nitrogen Nutrient ions bound to soil particles get replaced by H +, and essential nutrients leach away in soil water Nitrogen runoff also pollutes aquatic habitats Burning fossil fuels releases nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas that also contributes to acid rain Nitrogen in acid rain has the same effects as fertilizers

39 42.10 The Phosphorus Cycle Most phosphorus is bonded to oxygen as phosphate (PO 4 3– ) in rocks and sediments – and moves in a sedimentary cycle phosphorus cycle Movement of phosphorus among Earth’s rocks and waters, and into and out of food webs sedimentary cycle Biochemical cycle in which the atmosphere plays little role and rocks are the major reservoir

40 8 Steps in the Phosphorus Cycle 1.Weathering and erosion move phosphates from rocks into soil, lakes, and rivers 2.Leaching and runoff carry dissolved phosphates to the ocean 3.Phosphorus comes out of solution and settles as deposits along continental margins 4.Slow movements of Earth’s crust uplift deposits onto land, where weathering releases phosphates from rocks

41 8 Steps in the Phosphorus Cycle 5.Land plants take up dissolved phosphate from soil water 6.Land animals get phosphates by eating plants or one another; phosphorus returns to soil in wastes and remains 7.In seas, producers take up phosphate dissolved in seawater 8.Wastes and remains replenish phosphates in seawater

42 The Phosphorus Cycle

43 Fig , p. 719 Marine sediments uplifting over geologic time Marine food web Phosphates in seawater leaching, runoff Phosphates in soil, lakes, rivers excretion, death, decomposition uptake by producers weathering, erosion Rocks on land Land food webs The Phosphorus Cycle

44 uplifting over geologic time Rocks on land 4 Fig , p. 719 Phosphates in soil, lakes, rivers weathering, erosion 1 Phosphates in seawater leaching, runoff 2 Marine sediments 3 excretion, death, decomposition uptake by producers Land food webs 5 6 Marine food web 7 8 Stepped Art The Phosphorus Cycle

45 Phosphates and Eutrophication Phosphorus is often a limiting factor for plant growth Phosphate-rich droppings from seabird or bat colonies are used as fertilizer Phosphate-rich rock is also mined for this purpose Water pollution from high-phosphate fertilizers, detergents, or sewage can cause eutrophication

46 Key Concepts Nitrogen and Phosphorus Cycles Plants take up dissolved forms of nitrogen and phosphorus from soil water Nitrogen is abundant in air, but only certain bacteria can use the gaseous form Phosphorus has no major gaseous form; most of it is in rocks

47 Too Much of a Good Thing (revisited) Water treatment systems can remove phosphates from household wastewater with additional treatment and cost Phosphate-rich runoff from lawns usually goes into waterways without going through a treatment plant The most effective and economical way to keep aquatic ecosystems healthy is to avoid using phosphate-rich products when substitutes are available

48 Animation: Phosphorus Cycle


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