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Presentation on theme: "BIOSPHERE Chapter 3 REVIEW"— Presentation transcript:


2 List the 6 levels of organization that ecologists study from smallest to largest Organisms → Populations → Communities → Ecosystems → Biomes → BIOSPHERE

3 Name 4 ways organisms in an ecosystem interact with each other Competition Predation Cooperation Symbiosis

4 All the organisms that live in a place PLUS their non-living environment ecosystem Another name for autotrophs producers

5 Give an example of cooperation Grooming, sharing food, sharing care of offspring, group defense against predators group hunting; care for sick/injured Tell the two ways AUTOtrophs get their energy Chemosynthesis & photosynthesis

6 The portion of the Earth in which all life exists biosphere Make a food chain out of the following: herbivore omnivore autotroph autotroph → herbivore → omnivore

7 WHICH ORGANISMS are responsible for removing nitrogen from and returning nitrogen to the atmosphere? BACTERIA in soil The process of taking nitrogen from the atmosphere and changing it into a form plants can use is called ______________________ The process of converting soil nitrogen back into atmospheric form is called _______________________ NITROGEN FIXATION DENITRIFICATION

8 Energy moves through ecosystems in ______________ food chains/webs biogeochemical cycles Food chains/webs Which of these is a decomposer? ↑ Fungi and SOME bacteria are decomposers

9 Organism that eats both plants and meat omnivore Process in which water from plant leaves evaporates into the atmosphere transpiration

10 How does the way matter flows through an ecosystem differ from the way that energy flows? Energy is passed in one-way direction through the biotic (living organisms) in an ecosystem. Matter cycles within and between biotic and abiotic parts of an ecosystem. Which biogeochemical cycle does NOT involve a stage where the chemical enters the atmosphere? phosphorus

11 Process in which bacteria convert nitrates into nitrogen gas and release it into the atmosphere denitrification Nutrient which is scare or cycles slowly that controls population growth Limiting nutrient

12 Give an example of a decomposer Bacteria or fungi (break down organic material and absorb the nutrients) Which group of organisms is always found in the first trophic level of every food chain or web? Autotrophs or producers

13 Why is only about 10% of the energy in an organism transferred in a food chain? Some is used by organism for life processes such as movement, transport, metabolism, growth, reproduction, and rest is lost as HEAT Give an example of an ABIOTIC factor Climate, temperature, precipitation, wind, soil type, water availability, sunlight

14 Give an example of a RESOURCE Food, water, shelter, territory, light Another name for autotrophs producers

15 Who is it? Heterotroph that obtains energy by eating only plants___________________ Heterotroph that eats both plants and animals_____________________ Heterotroph that breaks down organic matter (Ex: Fungi & bacteria) __________________ Heterotroph that feed on dead plants and animal remains (EX:Crabs & worms) ___________________ Heterotroph that eats only meat ___________________ DECOMPOSER HERBIVORE OMNIVORE DETRITIVORE CARNIVORE

16 How is a food web different from a food chain? Food webs are made up of many food chains Which of these is an herbivore? ↑ Zebras are herbivores

17 How is a symbiosis DIFFERENT from cooperation? Cooperation is between organisms of same species; Symbiosis is between different species of organisms Tell two ways water returns to the atmosphere in the water cycle. Evaporation and transpiration

18 An organism that eats both meat and plants omnivore Name a limiting factor that could cause a population to decrease Competition- for food, shelter, territory Predation Disease/Parasitism Drought/climate change Human disturbance

19 Carbon cycles through the biosphere in all of the following EXCEPT: Photosynthesis respiration transpiration decomposition TRANSPIRATION moves water in the water cycle An organism that eats ONLY plants herbivore


21 The portion of the Earth in which all life exists biosphere Organism that captures and eats another predator

22 What is the difference between a BIOTIC and ABIOTIC factor? Biotic factors are living; Abiotic factors are the non-living parts of an ecosystem Which organisms are responsible for nitrogen fixation in the nitrogen cycle? Bacteria in soil

23 Symbiotic relationship in which both organisms benefit from their close association mutualism An “organism’s job” that includes what it eats, what eats it, where in the habitat it lives, how it acts, and when & how it reproduces? niche

24 Tell one way chemosynthesis is different from photosynthsis. Photosynthesis Chemosynthesis Requires light Happens without lightGets energy from sunlight chemical bonds In the nitrogen cycle, bacteria living on the roots of plants turn nitrogen gas from the atmosphere into _________. ammonia

25 Tell one way chemosynthesis and photosynthesis are ALIKE. Both: Ways organisms get energy Use energy to make carbohydrates Happen in autotrophs Energy moves through ecosystems in ________________. biogeochemical cycles food chains/webs food chains/webs

26 A group of individuals that belong to the same species that live together in an area population Another name for heterotrophs consumers

27 Which of the following is TRUE? Producers make up the first trophic level. Food chains are made by linking many food webs. All the energy is passed from one trophic level to the next Energy flows through the ecosystem in one direction from the sun to producers to consumers. F Only about 10% is passed on to the next level. Most is used for life processes or lost as heat TRUE FALSE: Food webs are made by linking food chains TRUE

28 Organisms that are able to take in energy from their environment and make their own carbohydrates are called ___________________________ autotrophs Which of these is a carnivore? ↑ Lions are carnivores

29 Group of different populations that live together in an area community All the living things an ecosystem that an organism might interact with Biotic factors

30 BIOLOGY; Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall; 2006 This diagram shows a ____________ Which of the organisms above is: a producer ? ______________ a consumer? _____________ How many trophic levels are shown? food chain algae Zooplankton, fish, squid, shark 5

31 Principle that states no two organisms can share the same niche at the same time in the same place Chemical substance organisms need to sustain life nutrient Competitive exclusion principle

32 Which of the following is TRUE? Bacteria take carbon dioxide from the atomosphere and fix it in a form plants can use. Carbon dioxide enters the atmosphere naturally from respiration and volcanic activity. Human activities such as mining, cutting and burning forests, and burning fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Photosynthesis by plants removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. TRUE This is TRUE about nitrogen NOT CARBON DIOXIDE TRUE

33 How is a detritivore different from a decomposer? Detritivores EAT dead organisms; Decomposers break them down and absorb their nutrients Name one of the biogeochemical cycles you learned about Carbon, nitrogen, Water (hydrogen & oxygen); phosphorus

34 Group of organisms so similar that they can breed and produce fertile offspring species An organism that is captured and eaten by another prey

35 Which of the following is TRUE? Burning fossil fuels is depleting our ozone layer Burning fossil fuels causes acid rain. Burning fossil fuels is the major cause of global warming. Conserving electricity, using renewable energy sources (like biofuels, solar, and wind), riding a bike, recycling waste, making products more energy efficient are all ways to help the global warming problem TRUE FALSE: Burning fossil fuels causes many environmental problems… but the ozone hole is caused by CFC’s TRUE

36 Process in which some bacteria use energy stored in the chemical bonds of inorganic compounds to make carbohydrates in the absence of light chemosynthesis Series of steps in which organisms transfer energy through an ecosystem by eating and being eaten Food chain

37 Which of the following is TRUE about the PHOSPHORUS CYCLE? Phosphate is released as rocks and sediments wear down Plants absorb phosphate from the soil or from water Phosphorus is abundant in the atmosphere. Phosphorus is important for building nucleic acids, ATP, and making cell membranes. FALSE, phosphorus does NOT cycle through the atomosphere. TRUE

38 Symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits but the other is neither harmed nor helped commensalism The scientific study of interactions between organisms and between organisms and their environment ecology

39 This diagram is called a _______________ What do you think would happen to the snake population in this community if all the pine borer bugs were killed by a virus? food web A loss in pine borer bugs would decrease the populations of salamanders and golden crested kinglets (food for the snake) Loss of pine borers would eventually cause a decrease in the snake population too.

40 Any necessity for life such as water, food, light, or space resource Relationship in which organisms attempt to use the same resource at the same time and place competition

41 What do you think will happen to the limpet population if all the mussels are wiped out in an oil spill? it will increase it will decrease it will stay the same; mussels don’t connect to limpets in this web Everything’s connected ! No mussels means crabs will eat more limpets; limpet population will decrease Look at the food web shown.


43 Organism such as bacteria or fungi that break down organic matter decomposers Each step in a food chain or web trophic level

44 Tell something living things use nitrogen for. Making proteins (amino part of amino acids) Making nucleic acids (nitrogen bases) Part of ATP molecule (nitrogen base) How is movement of matter in an ecosystem different than the movement of energy? Energy flows one direction through food chains; matter recycles continuously in biogeochemical cycles

45 Groups of different species that live together in an area make up a __________________ community Which of these is an omnivore? ↑ Most humans are omnivores

46 Cycle which includes an underground reservoir in the form of fossil fuels Carbon cycle Another name for the water cycle Hydrologic cycle

47 Process in which green plants use energy from sunlight to produce carbohydrates photosynthesis Another name for a living thing organism

48 Tell the group of organisms that all the cycles have in common which keeps matter cycling between living (organic) and nonliving (inorganic) parts of the ecosystem. decomposers

49 Which of the following is TRUE? Organisms return nitrogen to the ground as ammonia when they go to the bathroom. Bacteria in soil change ammonia into nitrates and nitrites which plants use. We get our nitrogen by breathing. Nitrogen returns to the atmosphere when we burn fossil fuels. FALSE: Although the atmosphere is mostly nitrogen, it is in a form we can’t use. We get our nitrogen from the food we eat. TRUE. TRUE FALSE; Bacteria return nitrogen to the atmosphere through DENITRIFICATION. Burning fossil fuels returns carbon dioxide to the atmosphere

50 Which 4 atoms make up over 95% of the body in most organisms? Carbon, Hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen Which of the biogeochemical cycles you learned about recycles hydrogen and oxygen? Hydrologic or water cycle

51 Organism such as mites, snail, earthworms, or crabs that eat dead plants or animals detritivore Process in which bacteria in soil convert nitrogen gas into ammonia Nitrogen fixation

52 Tell 2 of the 3 ways bacteria help with the nitrogen cycle. Some bacteria in soil & on plant roots convert nitrogen gas to ammonia (nitrogen fixation) Other soil bacteria convert ammonia to nitrates & nitrites that the plants can use Other bacteria convert nitrates into nitrogen gas and return it to atmosphere (denitrification) Name the two sources of energy for ALL life on Earth Sunlight and inorganic chemical bonds

53 An organism that eats ONLY meat carnivore Tell how a detritovore is different from a decomposer. Both get nutrients from dead organisms; detritivores eat dead stuff; decomposers Absorb energy from dead stuff, but DON’T actually EAT it.

54 Symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits by living on or inside another which is harmed parasitism Principle that states no 2 organisms can occupy the same niche in the same habitat at the same time. Competitive exclusion principle

55 Which level is it? Group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area. ___________________ Group of ecosystems that have the same climate and communities_____________________ Organisms so similar to one another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring __________________ Populations that live together in an area ____________________ Portion of the planet in which all life exists ___________________ Collection of all the organisms that live in an area together with their physical environment ___________________ SPECIES POPULATION BIOME COMMUNITY BIOSPHERE ECOSYSTEM

56 Organisms that can make their own food using energy from sunlight or chemical bonds in inorganic compounds autotrophs or producers All the non-living things such as climate, temperature, weather, soil type, or sunlight in an ecosystem that impact an organism Abiotic factors

57 Another name for the water cycle Hydrologic cycle Cycle in which photosynthesis and cellular respiration participate Carbon cycle

58 Organism that can’t make its own food and get energy from consuming other organisms heterotrophs or consumers Any relationship in which two species live closely together symbiosis

59 Interaction in which one organism captures and feeds on another. predation Network of complex interactions linking all the food chains in an ecosystem food web

60 Organism that eats only plants herbivore Process in which elements, chemical compounds, and other forms of matter are passed from part of the biosphere to another Biogeochemical cycle

61 Organism that eats only meat carnivore Process in which liquid water changes into a gas evaporation

62 Click here, scroll down, and complete the food web matching activityhere Although almost 80% of the atmosphere is made up of nitrogen gas, most living things don’t have the enzymes necessary to use nitrogen directly from the atmosphere. Tell how we get the nitrogen we need to make proteins and DNA if we can’t get it from breathing. From food we eat

63 Process that is part of the carbon cycle in which sunlight is used to change atmospheric carbon into biomolecules used for energy by living things photosynthesis Cycle in which transpiration, evaporation, and condensation play a role Water/hydrologic cycle

64 Name a producer in the food web shown What kind of heterotroph is a leopard seal? phytoplankton carnivore

65 Cycle in which volcanic activity and burning fossil fuels plays a role Carbon cycle Cycle which is dependent on bacteria for nitrogen fixation and denitrification Nitrogen cycle

66 Which type of organism is always on the first trophic level of every food chain A producer The process in which organisms use chemical energy stored IN THE CHEMICAL BONDS OF INORGANIC MOLECULES to make their own food in the absence of light is called _____________________ chemosynthesis

67 Process in which the break down of sugars in living things returns carbon to the atmosphere as CO 2 during the carbon cycle Cellular respiration Cycle which is dependent on bacteria for nitrogen fixation and denitrification Nitrogen cycle

68 Name an omnivore in the food web shown What kind of heterotroph is the snail in this food web? Rats, voles, mice, & mallards eat both plants and animals herbivore

69 Tell 2 human activities by which carbon can enter the atmosphere as CO 2 during the carbon cycle Cellular respiration, burning fossil fuels Tell one way carbon leaves the atmosphere during the carbon cycle. Photosynthesis CO 2 gas dissolves in water;

70 Name 2 NON-human activities by which carbon can enter the atmosphere or oceans during the carbon cycle. Volcanic activity Decomposition of dead organisms Deposition as fossil fuels Erosion Tell one way bacteria help with biogeochemical cycles. Nitrogen fixation & denitrification (nitrogen cycle) Decomposers break down dead organisms (carbon cycle)

71 Tell something humans do to return nitrogen to the soil for the nitrogen cycle. Add fertilizers; waste treatment plants Name the 4 biogeochemical cycles you learned about. Carbon, hydrologic (water); nitrogen; phosphorus

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