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Carboxylic Anhydrides, Esters and Amides
Naming Anhydrides Drop the word acid and say anhydride
Naming Esters Name the alkyl group bonded to the oxygen Then name the acid part but change the ending from oic acid to oate
Naming Amides Drop the oic acid part and say amide
Formation of Esters
Amides: Preparation Addition of ammonia results in an ammonium salt: ammonium salt Heating will remove a water and give the Amid This is not the most common way
Formation of Amides Anhydride + amine = amide + acid Do The YouTube
Reactions Hydrolysis of esters with acid Hydrolysis of esters with base (saponification) Reaction of Anhydrides with Alcohol Reaction of Esters with ammonia
Hydrolysis of Ester with Acid Hydrolysis breaks a carboxyl bond by addition of water, alcohol, or amine
Hydrolysis of Esters Hydrolysis = Reverse of esterification –Acid or base catalyzed –Produces acid and alcohol 1 o alcohol B
Hydrolysis of Esters with Base Base catalyzed hydrolysis (saponification) 1 o alcohol B
Reaction of Anhydrides with Alcohols EsterAcid
Reaction of Esters with Ammonia
Phosphoric Anhydrides Anhydrides of Phosphoric Acid The phosphorus structure is very common in biological systems For example - the phosphate portion of DNA B anhydride form H 3 PO 4
Phosphoric Anhydrides Anhydrides of Phosphoric Acid B
Phosphoric Anhydrides Anhydrides of Phosphoric Acid –Contain HIGH ENERGY bonds (linkages) Release of energy when broken B
Phosphoric Anhydrides Anhydrides of Phosphoric Acid –Esters found in Biochem reactions –ATP, ADP, etc. 1 o alcohol B As these bonds break, energy is released.
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