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Ecosystems Chapter 30. Bye-Bye Bayou Louisiana’s coastal wetlands are disappearing Global warming contributes to wetland’s demise Sea levels rising worldwide.

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Presentation on theme: "Ecosystems Chapter 30. Bye-Bye Bayou Louisiana’s coastal wetlands are disappearing Global warming contributes to wetland’s demise Sea levels rising worldwide."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ecosystems Chapter 30

2 Bye-Bye Bayou Louisiana’s coastal wetlands are disappearing Global warming contributes to wetland’s demise Sea levels rising worldwide Burning fossil fuels raises global temperature

3 Impacts, Issues Video Bye-Bye, Blue Bayou

4 Ecosystem An array of organisms and their physical environment, interconnected through a one-way flow of energy and cycling of raw materials

5 Modes of Nutrition Photoautotrophs –Capture sunlight or chemical energy –Primary producers Heterotrophs –Extract energy from other organisms or organic wastes –Consumers, decomposers, detritivores

6 Simple Ecosystem Model Energy input from sun Nutrient Cycling Producers Autotrophs (plants and other self-feeding organisms) Consumers Heterotrophs (animals, most fungi, many protists, many bacteria) Energy output (mainly metabolic heat)

7 The role of organisms in an ecosystem Simple Ecosystem Model

8 Consumers Herbivores Carnivores Parasites Omnivores Decomposers Detritivores SPRING rodents, rabbits fruits insects birds SUMMER rodents, rabbits fruits insects birds seasonal variation in the diet of an omnivore (red fox)

9 Trophic Levels Feeding relationships –All organisms at a trophic level are the same number of steps away from the energy input into the system Autotrophs are producers – closest to energy input – first trophic level

10 Trophic Levels 5th 4th 3rd 2nd 1st Fourth-level consumers (heterotrophs): Top carnivores, parasites, detritivores, decomposers Third-level consumers (heterotrophs): Carnivores, parasites, detritivores, decomposers Second-level consumers (heterotrophs): Carnivores, parasites, detritivores, decomposers First-level consumers (heterotrophs): Herbivores, parasites, detritivores, decomposers Primary producers (autotrophs): Photoautotrophs, chemoautotrophs

11 marsh hawk crow garter snake cutworm flowering plants fifth trophic level top carnivore (fourth-level consumer) fourth trophic level carnivore (third-level consumer) third trophic level carnivore (second-level consumer) second trophic level herbivore (primary consumer) first trophic level autotroph (primary producer) Fig. 30-3, p.528

12 Food chain Food Chain

13 A straight-line sequence of who eats whom Simple food chains are rare in nature marsh hawk upland sandpiper garter snake cutworm plants

14 marsh hawk crow upland sandpiper garter snake frog spider weaselbadgercoyote ground squirrelpocket gopherprairie vole sparrow earthworms, insects First Trophic Level Second Trophic Level Higher Trophic Levels Connections in a tallgrass prairie food web grasses, composites Fig. 30-4, p.529

15 Rain-forest food web Rain Forest

16 Energy Losses Energy transfers are never 100% efficient Some energy is lost at each step Limits number of trophic levels in an ecosystem

17 Biological Magnification Nondegradable or slowly degradable substances become more and more concentrated in tissues of organisms at higher trophic levels of a food web

18 DDT in Food Webs Synthetic pesticide banned in United States since 1970s Carnivorous birds accumulate DDT in their tissues, produce brittle egg shells

19 Fig. 30-5, p.530

20 Ecological Pyramids Primary producers are bases for successive tiers of consumers Biomass pyramid –Dry weight of all organisms Energy pyramid –Usable energy decreases as it is transferred through ecosystem

21 Biomass Pyramid Aquatic ecosystem, Silver Springs, Florida Long-term study of a grazing food web 5 decomposers, detritivores (bacteria, crayfish) 1.5 1.1 37 third-level carnivores (gar, large-mouth bass) second-level consumers (fishes, invertebrates) first-level consumers (herbivorous fishes, turtles, invertebrates) primary producers (algae, eelgrass, rooted plants) 809

22 Energy Pyramid Primary producers trapped about 1.2% of the solar energy that entered the ecosystem 6–16% passed on to next level 21 383 3,368 20,810 kilocalories/square meter/year top carnivores carnivores herbivores producers decomposers + detritivores = 5,080

23 Energy flow at Silver Springs Silver Springs Study

24 Biogeochemical Cycle Flow of an essential substance from the environment to living organisms and back to the environment Main reservoir is in the environment Geologic processes, decomposers aid cycles

25 Three Categories Hydrologic cycle –Water Atmospheric cycles –Nitrogen and carbon Sedimentary cycles –Phosphorus and other nutrients

26 Hydrologic Cycle atmosphere ocean land evaporation from ocean 425,000 precipitation into ocean 385,000 evaporation from land plants (evapotranspiration) 71,000 precipitation onto land 111,000 wind-driven water vapor 40,000 surface and groundwater flow 40,000

27 Hydrologic cycle Hydrologic Cycle

28 Global Water Crisis Limited amount of fresh water Desalinization is expensive and requires large amounts of energy Aquifers are being depleted Groundwater is contaminated Sewage, agricultural runoff, and industrial chemicals pollute rivers

29 Threats to aquifers Aquifer Problems

30 Carbon Cycle Carbon moves through atmosphere, food webs, ocean, sediments, and rocks Sediments and rocks are the main reservoir Combustion of fossil fuels changes natural balance

31 Carbon cycle Carbon Cycle

32 Greenhouse Effect Greenhouse gases impede escape of heat from Earth’s surface

33 Greenhouse effect Greenhouse Effect

34 Global Warming Long-term increase in temperature of Earth’s lower atmosphere

35 Carbon dioxide and temperature Greenhouse Gases

36 Carbon Dioxide Increase Carbon dioxide levels fluctuate seasonally Average level is steadily increasing Burning of fossil fuels and deforestation are contributing to the increase

37 Other Greenhouse Gases CFCs: synthetic gases used in plastics and in refrigeration Methane: released by natural gas production, livestock Nitrous oxide: released by bacteria, fertilizers, and animal wastes

38 Greenhouse gases Greenhouse Gases

39 Table 30-1, p.537

40 Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen is used in amino acids and nucleic acids Main reservoir is nitrogen gas in the atmosphere Nitrogen gas can’t enter food web

41 Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen cycle

42 Human Effects Humans increase rate of nitrogen loss by clearing forests and grasslands Humans increase nitrogen in water and air by using fertilizers and by burning fossil fuels Too much or too little nitrogen can compromise plant health

43 Air Pollution Effects of nitrogen oxides released by burning fossil fuels

44 Deforestation Effect of air pollution in forests

45 Phosphorus Cycle Phosphorus is part of phospholipids, nucleotides, NADH, ATP Main limiting factor in ecosystems Reservoir is Earth’s crust; no gaseous phase

46 Phosphorus Cycle Phosphorus cycle

47 Human Effects In tropical countries, clearing lands for agriculture may deplete phosphorus- poor soils In developed countries, fertilizer causes phosphorus overloads in soil

48 Eutrophication Phosphorus is limiting factor in many freshwater ecosystems Runoff from phosphate fertilizers accelerates algal growth in waterways Resulting dense algal blooms cause system overload and death

49 Clouds Move

50 Stream

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