Total external load (direct watershed): 410 kg/yr 1.Forest: 107 kg/yr or 25-26% of total P load 2.Shoreline septic tanks: 96 kg/yr or 23% 3.Shoreline development: 56 kg/yr or 14% Sediment release contributed the most phosphorus: 328 kg/yr Total Phosphorus Loading Results
P sourceTogus PondThreemile PondWebber Pond 1 Sediment Release Reverting landSediment Release 2 ForestSediment Release Agriculture/ Golf course 3 Shoreline septic tanks Transitional Forest Threemile Pond What about phosphorus in other Central Maine lakes?
Decrease inputs from watershed Decrease internal loading through remediation What needs to change to improve lake health?
Shoreline septic tanks Minimize shoreline development Where will this reduction come from?
Most of Togus Pond’s phosphorus comes from internal recycling and sediment release The external load must be reduced first Phosphorus Model Conclusions
Recommendations overview Watershed management In-lake management Monitoring and regulations Community awareness and education Grants and funding
Watershed Management Buffer strips and erosion –Impervious surfaces –Coverage and depth –Rip rap Roads –Maintenance –Limited and monitored construction
Watershed Management Septic systems –Old systems –Pump outs –Upgrades Land use –Enforcement –Deforestation
In-Lake Management Implementation of applicable remediation techniques Continued watershed management Studies and monitoring of remediation
Monitoring and Regulations Maine Volunteer Lake Monitoring Program Worromontogus Lake Association Wetlands protection
Grants and Funding Maine Department of Environmental Protection –Nonpoint source water pollution control grants –Small community grant programs Maine Department of Transportation –Surface Water Quality Protection Program
Community Awareness Phosphorus free fertilizers Phosphorus free household detergents
Eutrophication Phosphorus is entering the lake from soil runoff and human uses of the land and from sediment in the lake. This leads to algal blooms and a decrease in water quality.
Summary Phosphorus that comes from sources outside the lake should be reduced. –Buffer strips –Roads –Septic systems –Detergents, and fertilizers
Remediation techniques may help reduce the phosphorus that is already stored in the lake sediments. –Alum treatment –Fish stock manipulation –Drawdown –Vegetative mats Summary
Acknowledgements We would like to give our thanks to the people and organizations that generously provided their time, knowledge, and support. Thank you. Roy Bouchard, Maine Department of Environmental Protection Russell Cole, Colby College Paul Connolly, Togus Pond Resident Dennis Curtis, Togus Pond Resident Fred Dillon, Maine Association of Conservation Districts Richard Dolby, Director of Code Enforcement David Firmage, Colby College Roger Gagnon, Togus Pond Resident David Halliwell, Maine Department of Environmental Protection Rebecca Manthy, China Lakes Alliance Jeff Norton, Elma’s Tackle and Hunting Supply Store John Pucciarelli, President of the Worromontogus Pond Association George Soucy, Code Enforcement Officer Nate Sylvester, Lakes Program, Kennebec County Soil and Water Conservation District Dan Tierney, Colby College Bill Woodward, Maine Department of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife Bobby Van-Riper, Maine Department of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife Augusta Town Office Maine Department of Environmental Protection Maine Department of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife Staff Maine Soil and Water Conservation Staff