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Focus on Phosphorus Johan Malgeryd Swedish Board of Agriculture.

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1 Focus on Phosphorus Johan Malgeryd Swedish Board of Agriculture

2 Focus on Phosphorus… … is a pilot project within the advisory project Focus on Nutrients … was started in 2006 in order to test measures against phos- phorus losses from farmland in practice Aims: To develop an approach to decrease phosphorus losses from agriculture within a catchment area in the most efficient way To practically test if the measures we know today could influence phosphorus losses from the arable land

3 Focus on Nutrients… … is a national advisory project focused on reducing the environ- mental impact of Swedish agriculture … was started in 2001 in southern Sweden and has gradually expanded northwards … has more than 7 700 members … covers ca 23 % of the arable land in Sweden … supplies farmers with individual advice free of charge … has an annual budget of ca 35 MSEK during the period 2010- 2013 Aims: To inspire and motivate farmers and advisors to use knowledge in order to decrease the environmental impact and increase the profitability of their farms. To help farmers contribute to reach the Swedish environmental objectives Zero eutrophication, Natural acidification only, A non-toxic environment and Reduced climate impact.

4 Focus on Nutrients – Geographic area and members

5 Focus on Phosphorus - Approach within 3 delimited catchments (pilot areas) with well-known history when it comes to phosphorus losses test various methods to identify those fields or parts of fields where the risk for phos- phorus losses is biggest in cooperation with the concerned farmers develop proposals on measures that could be inserted in order to decrease the losses. try to get farmers to implement the measures that are applicable in practice. The measure work is backed up with advice and when necessary also with other instruments, e.g. economic compensation. follow up the effects of the measures taken through measure- ments in runoff waters.

6 Focus on Phosphorus – Pilot areas

7 Characteristics of the pilot areas AreaMain catchmentProduc- tion area 1 Size, ha Arable land, % Pasture, % Forest and other land 2, % Domin. soil type 3 Measur- ing period 4 U8NorrströmSs525 5 62--Styv lera1993- E23SöderköpingsånGns744531037Styv lera1988-95, 2002- N33GenevadsånGss65093--Mellanlera1991-

8 What have we done so far? Selection of pilot areas Contacts with farmers Measurements and other data sampling Cultivation inventory Measurements of water flow and precipitation Water sampling and water analyses Collection of other data Calculation of concentrations, transports and source distribution Risk assessment Counseling Cooperation with other projects

9 How do we move forward? Applied for and received funding for another three years of operation (2010-2012). Totally 4 MSEK during three years (excl. the working hours of the project manager). Advisory service is funded via the regular budget of Focus on Nutrients. Also measures against nitrogen losses in area N33 i Halland. Cooperation with other projects in area E23. Are currently taking up measures, including structural liming in area U8 and E23.

10 Some conclusions 1. The pilot areas chosen have functioned well. 2. The farmers’ attitude has in most cases been experienced as positively cautious. 3. The communication with the farmers does not function in the same way in all areas. 4. Farmers experience the cultivation inventory as time-consuming paper work. 5. With manual (time scheduled) water sampling, there is a considerable risk that one underestimates the phosphorus losses. 6. The flow forecasts from SMHI have been of good help in order to co- ordinate the synoptic water sampling with flow peaks in area E23. 7. The individual advice given within Focus on Nutrients has, in most cases, been experienced as positive. 8. The farmers have implemented measures that are directly profitable, e.g. reduced purchase of mineral fertilizers. 9. Structural liming is a measure we currently have high hopes of. 10. For certain bigger measures (e.g. establishment of wetlands) there are many legal, economic and hydro-technical aspects that need to be investigated before the measures can be implemented in practice

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