Presentation on theme: "Learning Goal: Describe carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Warm-up: Please identify the main types of biomolecules in the foods pictured."— Presentation transcript:
Learning Goal: Describe carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Warm-up: Please identify the main types of biomolecules in the foods pictured below Pancake butter syrupbaconorange juice
BIOMOLECULES Biological molecules, or biomolecules, are built by joining atoms through covalent bonds. These smaller units are called monomers. MACROMOLECULES (large molecules) made by polymerization -large compounds built by joining smaller ones together. 4 key macromolecules, critical for life. carbohydrates, lipids,nucleic acids and proteins.
CHONPS: The Six Most Abundant Elements of Life Most biological molecules are made from covalent combinations of six important elements, whose chemical symbols are CHNOPS. Although more than 25 types of elements can be found in biomolecules, six elements are most common. These are called the CHNOPS elements; the letters stand for the chemical abbreviations of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur.
CARBOHYDRATES 1:2:1 RATIO of Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen. Main source of energy for living things Monomers are glucose, fructose, and galactose Also has structural purpose for living things. 1. Plant cells have cell walls made of cellulose 2. Animal cells store excess sugars as glycogen
LIPIDS Made of Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen. NOT soluble in water. store energy part of the cell membrane Saturated-Solid at room temperature. No double bonds Unsaturated-liquid at room temperature. Double bonds between carbons. Monomers consist of fatty acids plus glycerol
PROTEINS Composed of Nitrogen, Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen. Monomers are called amino acids Control rate of reactions,also function in transport and formation of bone and muscle cells. Folded shape is important in enzyme recognition process.
NUCLEIC ACIDS Composed of Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Carbon, and Phosphorus. Monomers are called nucleotides. Phosphate group Nitrogenous base Sugar Store and transmit hereditary information. ex. DNA, RNA