Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter # 22 Water Pollution. In-class Discussion Readers: Chapter # 1 - Me Chapter # 2 – David Dudley Chapter # 3 – Elizabeth Goodrich Chapter # 4 –

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Chapter # 22 Water Pollution. In-class Discussion Readers: Chapter # 1 - Me Chapter # 2 – David Dudley Chapter # 3 – Elizabeth Goodrich Chapter # 4 –"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter # 22 Water Pollution

2 In-class Discussion Readers: Chapter # 1 - Me Chapter # 2 – David Dudley Chapter # 3 – Elizabeth Goodrich Chapter # 4 – James McLeod Chapter # 5 – Labecca Hampton and Jessica Vidal Chapter # 6 – Patrick Grennan and Scott Arnold Chapter # 7 – William Arnold Chapter # 8 – Crisy Overgard Chapter # 9 – Juan Rodriguez

3 Overview o Types of Water Pollution Sewage Sewage Disease-causing agents Disease-causing agents Sediment pollution Sediment pollution Inorganic plant and algal nutrients Inorganic plant and algal nutrients Organic compounds Organic compounds Inorganic chemicals Inorganic chemicals Thermal pollution Thermal pollution o Water Quality Today o Improving Water Quality o Laws Controlling Water Pollution

4 Types of Water Pollution o Water pollution Any physical or chemical change in water that adversely affects the health of humans and other organisms Any physical or chemical change in water that adversely affects the health of humans and other organisms Varies in magnitude by location Varies in magnitude by location o Major water pollution issue globally Lack of disease-free water Lack of disease-free water o Eight categories Sewage, disease-causing agents, sediment pollution, inorganic plant and algal nutrients, organic compounds, inorganic chemicals, radioactive substances, and thermal pollution Sewage, disease-causing agents, sediment pollution, inorganic plant and algal nutrients, organic compounds, inorganic chemicals, radioactive substances, and thermal pollution

5 Sewage o The release of wastewater from drains or sewers Includes human wastes, soaps, and detergents Includes human wastes, soaps, and detergents o Causes 2 serious environmental problems: Enrichment Enrichment Fertilization of a body of water by high levels of plant and algal nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) Fertilization of a body of water by high levels of plant and algal nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) Increase in Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) Increase in Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) Amount of oxygen needed by microorganisms to decompose biological wastes Amount of oxygen needed by microorganisms to decompose biological wastes As BOD increases Dissolve Oxygen (DO) decreases As BOD increases Dissolve Oxygen (DO) decreases

6 Sewage

7 Sewage- Eutrophication o Oligotrophic Unenriched, clear water that supports small populations of aquatic organisms Unenriched, clear water that supports small populations of aquatic organisms

8 Sewage- Eutrophication o Eutrophic- Slow-flowing stream, lake or estuary enriched by inorganic plant and algal nutrients such as phosphorus Slow-flowing stream, lake or estuary enriched by inorganic plant and algal nutrients such as phosphorus Often due to fertilizer or sewage runoff Often due to fertilizer or sewage runoff

9 Disease-causing Agents o Infectious organisms that cause diseases Originate in the wastes of infected individuals Originate in the wastes of infected individuals o Common bacterial or viral diseases: Typhoid, cholera, bacterial dysentery, polio, and infectious hepatitis Typhoid, cholera, bacterial dysentery, polio, and infectious hepatitis

10 Disease-causing Agents o Monitored by testing for presence of E. coli in the water via a fecal coliform test Indicates the presence of pathogenic organisms Indicates the presence of pathogenic organisms

11 Sediment Pollution o Excessive amounts of suspended soil particles Originates from erosion of agricultural lands, forest soils exposed by logging, degraded stream banks, overgrazed rangelands, strip mines, and construction Originates from erosion of agricultural lands, forest soils exposed by logging, degraded stream banks, overgrazed rangelands, strip mines, and construction o Problems Limits light penetration Limits light penetration Covers aquatic animals and plants Covers aquatic animals and plants Brings insoluble toxins into waterways Brings insoluble toxins into waterways

12

13 Inorganic Plant and Algal Nutrients o Chemicals such as nitrogen and phosphorus that stimulate the growth of plants and algae Harmful in large concentrations Harmful in large concentrations o Sources: Human and animal wastes, plant residues, atmospheric deposition, and fertilizer runoff Human and animal wastes, plant residues, atmospheric deposition, and fertilizer runoff o Causes: Enrichment, bad odors, and a high BOD Enrichment, bad odors, and a high BOD

14 Inorganic Plant and Algal Nutrient- The Dead Zone

15

16 The Great Pacific Patch of Garbage

17 Organic Compounds o Chemicals that contain carbon atoms Natural examples: sugars, amino acids, and oils Natural examples: sugars, amino acids, and oils Human-made examples: pesticides, solvents, industrial chemicals, and plastics Human-made examples: pesticides, solvents, industrial chemicals, and plastics

18 Inorganic Chemicals o Contaminants that contain elements other than carbon Examples: acids, salts, and heavy metals Examples: acids, salts, and heavy metals o Do not degrade easily o Lead Found in old paint, industrial pollutants, leaded gasoline Found in old paint, industrial pollutants, leaded gasoline o Mercury Mercury bioaccumulates in the muscles of top predators of the open ocean Mercury bioaccumulates in the muscles of top predators of the open ocean

19 Radioactive Substances o Contain atoms of unstable isotopes that spontaneously emit radiation o Sources Mining Mining Processing radioactive materials Processing radioactive materials Nuclear power plants Nuclear power plants Natural sources Natural sources

20 Thermal Pollution o Occurs when heated water produced during industrial processes is released into waterways o Organisms affected Temperature affects reproductive cycles, digestion rates, and respiration rates Temperature affects reproductive cycles, digestion rates, and respiration rates Warm water holds less DO than cold water Warm water holds less DO than cold water

21 Water Quality Today o Two Types of Water Pollution o -Point Source Pollution water pollution that can be traced to a specific origin water pollution that can be traced to a specific origin Discharge via pipes, sewage, and ditches Discharge via pipes, sewage, and ditches o -Non-point Source Pollution Pollutants that enter bodies of water over large areas rather than being concentrated at a single point of entry Pollutants that enter bodies of water over large areas rather than being concentrated at a single point of entry Diffuse, but its cumulative effect is very large Diffuse, but its cumulative effect is very large Ex: runoff from agricultural fields or parking lots Ex: runoff from agricultural fields or parking lots

22 Water Pollution from Agriculture o Agriculture is leading source of water pollution in US Animal wastes and plants residues have high BOD Animal wastes and plants residues have high BOD Chemical pesticides can leach into groundwater Chemical pesticides can leach into groundwater o Almost all streams and rivers are polluted with agricultural pesticides

23 Municipal Water Pollution

24 Industrial Wastes in Water o Different industries generate different pollutants Food processing plants- high BOD Food processing plants- high BOD Paper mills- High BOD and toxic compounds Paper mills- High BOD and toxic compounds o Many industries recover toxins before they go into the waste stream

25 Case-In-Point Green Chemistry

26 Groundwater Pollution

27 Water Pollution in Other Countries o Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela 10,000 oil wells tap lake bottom 10,000 oil wells tap lake bottom Leak oil into lake Leak oil into lake Agricultural wastes from local fields Agricultural wastes from local fields Unit recently raw human waste polluted the lake Unit recently raw human waste polluted the lake

28 Water Pollution in Other Countries o Po River, Italy Similar to Mississippi River Pollutants: Sewage, industrial wastes, sediment >16 million Italians depend on the river for drinking water Pollution is high Swimming and fishing prohibited Cleanup will require a national management plan and may take decades

29 Water Pollution in Other Countries o Ganges River, India Used for bathing and washing clothing Used for bathing and washing clothing Sewage and industrial waste discharged into river Sewage and industrial waste discharged into river Ganga Action Plan initiated by government Ganga Action Plan initiated by government Construction of 29 sewage treatment plants Construction of 29 sewage treatment plants

30 Improving Water Quality- Purification of Drinking Water o In US most municipal water supplies are treated o Collected from water or reservoir o Treated

31 o Treated water distributed to customers o Sewer lines bring sewage to treatment plant o Sewage treated at sewage treatment plant Improving Water Quality- Purification of Drinking Water

32 Purification of Drinking Water o Chlorine Dilemma Chlorine kills disease causing organisms Chlorine kills disease causing organisms Chlorine byproducts are linked to numerous cancers, miscarriages and birth defects Chlorine byproducts are linked to numerous cancers, miscarriages and birth defects Peru stopped using chlorine Peru stopped using chlorine huge cholera epidemic that infected 300,000 people huge cholera epidemic that infected 300,000 people o Fluoridation Prevents tooth decay Prevents tooth decay Linked to cancer, kidney disease Linked to cancer, kidney disease

33 Municipal Sewage Treatment o Primary treatment Removing suspended and floating particles by mechanical processes Removing suspended and floating particles by mechanical processes o Secondary treatment Treating wastewater biologically to decompose suspended organic material; reduces BOD Treating wastewater biologically to decompose suspended organic material; reduces BOD

34 Municipal Sewage Treatment o Sewage Sludge Solids remaining after primary and secondary sewage treatment has been completed Solids remaining after primary and secondary sewage treatment has been completed o Tertiary treatment Advanced wastewater treatment methods that are sometimes employed after primary and secondary treatments Advanced wastewater treatment methods that are sometimes employed after primary and secondary treatments Reduce phosphorus and nitrogen Reduce phosphorus and nitrogen

35 Municipal Sewage Treatment

36 Individual Septic System- Septic Tank

37 Individual Septic System- Drain Field

38 Laws Controlling Water Pollution o Citizen Watchdogs to Monitor Pollution o Safe Drinking Water Act (1974) Set uniform federal standards for drinking water Set uniform federal standards for drinking water Maximum contaminant level Maximum contaminant level o Clean Water Act (1972) EPA sets up and monitors National Emissions Limitations EPA sets up and monitors National Emissions Limitations Effectively improved water quality from point sources Effectively improved water quality from point sources

39 Laws that Protect Groundwater o Safe Drinking Water Act o Resource, Conservation and Recovery Act


Download ppt "Chapter # 22 Water Pollution. In-class Discussion Readers: Chapter # 1 - Me Chapter # 2 – David Dudley Chapter # 3 – Elizabeth Goodrich Chapter # 4 –"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google