Presentation on theme: "Experience in the Field of Mycorrhizae at the Faculty of Agriculture, U. of K."— Presentation transcript:
Experience in the Field of Mycorrhizae at the Faculty of Agriculture, U. of K.
What are mycorrhizae? ISV derived from: Mykes = fungus Rhiza = root Mycorrhizae = beneficial symbiotic associations between plant roots (80% of plants) and certain fungi (order Glomeromycota )
Categories of Mycorrhizae Two Major Categories: Ectomycorrhizae: Mycelium forms an external sheath around root tip. Does not penetrate cells of root. Endomycorrhizae: Mycelium does not form sheath and does penetrate root cells. Vesicular-arbuscular (VA, or AM) endomycorrhizae received much attention (involve plants of agric. importance).
The start 1985: A. A. Mahdi attended “ The International Training Course on Endomycorrhizas”. Cairo Mircen (Microbiological Resource Centre). Instructors: M.J. Daft, C.K. Schenck.
Dept. Botany & Agric. Biotechnology 1990 : I.M. Atabani: “Interaction between root-nodule bacteria and endomycorrhizal fungi in soybean and hyacinth bean”. M.Sc. Project [Supervisor A.A. Mahdi]
Dept. Botany & Agric. Biotechnology Mahdi and Atabani (1992). Response of Bradyrhizobium- inoculated soybean and lablab bean to inoculation with vesicular- arbuscular mycorrhizae. Experimental Agriculture 28, 399-407: Gigaspora margarita and Glomus mossae improved nodulation, DM yield and plant N & P contents of the two crops more than Gigaspora calospora and Acalospoa sp.
Dept. Botany & Agric. Biotechnology 1993: I.M. Galal ElDin: “Effect of inoculation with vesicular- arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on nodulation and dry matter yield of Bradyrhizobium- inoculated cowpea”. M.Sc. Project [Supervisor A.A. Mahdi]. Inoculation with VAM fungi sig. increased cowpea nodulation, DM yield, tissue P &N contents in both silty and sandy soils. Dual inoculation with VAM fungi and root-nodule bacteria resulted in synergistic enhancement of their individual effects.
Dept. Botany & Agric. Biotechnology Mahdi (1993). Biofertilizer research in the Sudan, a review. U. of K. J. Agric. Sciences 1, 137- 151. Highlighted the local efforts in the general area of biofertilization, with a touch on work carried out on mycorrhizae.
Dept. Soil Science Mirghani and Elsheikh (1996). Interaction of VA mycorrhizal fungi and rootknot nematode on tomato plants: Effects of nemacur, phosphorus and infection time. Elbuhuth Scientific Journal, 5, 88-107.Interaction of VA mycorrhizal fungi and rootknot nematode on tomato plants: Effects of nemacur, phosphorus and infection time Addition of P or Glomus sp. significantly increased plant dry weight and P content. The addition of P, nemacur or Glomus sp. significantly decreased the gall number in plants infected with Meloidogyne incognita. Addition of P significantly decreased mycorrhizal infection whereas addition of nemacur did not affect it. Plant dry weight and P content were significantly increased, whereas, gall number was significantly decreased when the mycorrhizal infection preceded the nematode infection.
Dept. Botany &Agric Biotechnology, Dept. Soil Science & Dept. Crop Protection Idris, ElSheikh & El Hassan (1997). A note on the response of three onion cultivars to infection with VAM-fungi and onion yellow dwarf virus. U. of K.J. Agric. Sci. 5, 159- 161. In mixed infection with OYDV, VAM caused pronounced enhancement in shoot dry weight, bulb size, total soluble solids and shoot P content over the virus-infected plants. However, the cultivars showed differential response to VAM and/or fungus infection.
Dept. of Soil Science El Sheikh and Mohamed Zein (1998). Effect of Bradyrhizobium, VA-mycorrhizae and fertilizers on seed composition of groundnut. Annals of Applied Biology 132, 325-330. Glomus inoculation and/or superphosphate significantly increased oil and protein contents of groundnut seeds. Glomus and/or Bradyrhizobium sig. increased ash, crude fiber & tannin contents.
Dept. Agronomy & Soil Science Ahmed, Yagoub & El Sheikh (2000). Effects of mycorrhizal inoculation and phosphorus application on the nodulation, mycorrhizal infection and yield components of faba bean grown under two watering regimes in heavy clay soil. U. of K. J. Agric. Science 8, 107-117. Substantial mycorrhizal infection occurred with low P concentration under both well-watered and dry soil conditions. However, at high soil P, mycorrhizal infection was not suppressed in the dry watering regime as it was in the well-watered treatment. Mycorrhizal inoculation significantly increased nodule number, nodule dry weight, flower set, pod production and seed yield under both watering regimes, but P application alone had no significant effect on all the above mentioned parameters. Stimulation of faba bean symbiotic activity and seed yield by mycorrhizal inoculation was suppressed by the application of phosphorus.
Dept. Botany & Agric. Biotechnology 2001: A.B. Nur ElDaim: “Influence of biofertilization and chemical fertilizers on soybean” M.Sc. Project [Supervisor: A.A. Mahdi]
Dept. Botany & Agric. Biotechnology Mahdi, Nur ElDaim and Arbab (2004). Influence of mycorrhizal inoculation, form of phosphate fertilizer and watering regime on nodulation and dry matter production of soybean. U. of K. J. Agric. Sciences 12, 346- 357. Soybean nodulation and growth were significantly enhanced by mycorrhization and by P fertilization, but the effects were greater in presence of both treatments. Nodulation in sandy soil was strictly dependent on the presence of mycorrhizal fungi.
Dept. Horticulture Ali M. Muddathir (2007). “Effect of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation and phosphorus treatments on growth and yield of three onion cultivars” M. Sc. Project [ Supervisor Abdalla A. Abdalla] Application of mycorrhizae, without phosphorus, resulted in significant increases in number of leaves, plant weight, bulb diameter and total bulb yield.
Dept. Crop Protection, Horticulture, Soil Science Mohammed, El Hassan, Elballa, and Elsheikh (2008). The role of Trichoderma, VA-mycorrhizae and dry yeast in the control of Rhizoctonia disease of potato. U. of K. J. Agric. Science 16, 284-300. VA mycorrhizae enhanced both the growth and yield Rhizoctonia -inoculated potato plants and significantly reduced the harmful effects of the disease.
Dept. Botany & Agric. Biotechnology 2008: L. S. Mohamed: “Ecological studies on vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae of alfalfa and maize as affected by N and P fertilization” M.Sc. Project [Supervisor A.A. Mahdi]
Dept Agronomy 2004. Salma A. Haroun: “Mycorrhizal colonization of faba bean and maize”. M.Sc. Project [Supervisor: F.G. Ahmed]
Dept. Botany & Agric. Biotechnology & Dept. Agronomy 2010: Ahmed, Haroun and Mahdi (**). Mycorrhizal colonization of faba bean and maize as affected by P, N and some cultural practises. Submitted to U. of K. J. Agric. Sciences