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Iron and Aluminum Compounds for Removing Phosphorus and Turbidity from Pond Waters Claude E. Boyd, Puan Pengseng and Suthira Soongsawang Department of.

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Presentation on theme: "Iron and Aluminum Compounds for Removing Phosphorus and Turbidity from Pond Waters Claude E. Boyd, Puan Pengseng and Suthira Soongsawang Department of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Iron and Aluminum Compounds for Removing Phosphorus and Turbidity from Pond Waters Claude E. Boyd, Puan Pengseng and Suthira Soongsawang Department of Fisheries and Allied Aquacultures Auburn University, Alabama USA

2 Turbidity Removal _ Soil colloids + Al 3+ (Fe 3+ )  _ Soil colloids The neutral particles will flocculate and settle from the water.   Al 3 +

3 Phosphorus Removal AL 3+ + H 2 PO H 2 O  AlPO 4  2H 2 O  + 2H + Fe 3+ + H 2 PO H 2 O  FePO 4  2H 2 O  + 2H +

4 Effect on Total Alkalinity Al H 2 O = Al(OH) 3 + 3H + CaCO 3 + 2H + = CO 2 + H 2 O + Ca 2+ 1 mg/L Al 3+ = 5.6 mg/L CaCO 3 Same reaction for iron, but 1 mg/L Fe 3+ = 2.7 mg/L CaCO 3

5 Kemira products for removing phosphorus and suspended solids from aquaculture pond water. Product name Specific gravity (g/cm 3 ) Ferric chloride, liquid, 11.1% Fe1.38 Ferix-3, granular ferric sulfate, 21% FeN/A Aluminum chloride, liquid, 5.6% Al1.27 Ferrous chloride, 25% solution1.24 Ferric chloride, liquid, 13.5% Fe1.43 Ferric sulfate, 13.5% Fe solution1.55

6 Kemira products for removing phosphorus and suspended solids from aquaculture pond water. Product name Specific gravity (g/cm 3 ) PAX-18, liquid polyaluminum chloride, 9% Al1.37 Aluminum sulfate (alum) solution, liquid, % Al (?)1.33 Ferrous sulfate, 5-7% Fe solution1.15 Clear PASS 1000, liquid, 13% Fe1.27 Polyferric sulfate, 12% Fe solution1.5

7 Effect of Kemira products at 10 mg/L on total phosphorus concentration and turbidity in laboratory tests. TP (mg/L)Turbidity (NTU) ProductControlTreatedControlTreated Ferric chloride, 11.1% Fe Ferric chloride, 13.5% Fe Granular ferric sulfate, 21% Fe Ferric sulfate, 13.5% Fe Polyferric sulfate, 12% Fe Ferrous chloride, 25% Fe

8 Effect of Kemira products at 10 mg/L on total phosphorus concentration and turbidity in laboratory tests. TP (mg/L)Turbidity (NTU) ProductControlTreatedControlTreated Ferrous sulfate, 5-7% Fe Clear PASS 1000, liquid, 13% Fe Aluminum chloride, 5.6% Al Aluminum sulfate, % Al (?) Polyaluminum chloride, 9% Al

9 Effects of liquid ferric chloride (13.5% Fe) on water quality in laboratory tests. Product concentration (mg/L) SRP (  g/L) TP (mg/L) Turbidity (NTU)pH Total alkalinity (mg/L)

10 Effects of liquid ferric sulfate (13.5% Fe) on water quality in laboratory tests. Product concentration (mg/L) SRP (  g/L) TP (mg/L) Turbidity (NTU)pH Total alkalinity (mg/L)

11 Average concentrations of soluble reactive phosphorus (mg/L) in control ponds and in ponds treated at 10 mg/L with ferric chloride and ferric sulfate. BeforeDays after application Treatmentapplication1714 Ferric chloride Ferric sulfate Control

12 Average concentrations of total phosphorus (mg/L) in control ponds and in ponds treated at 10 mg/L with ferric chloride and ferric sulfate. BeforeDays after application Treatmentapplication1714 Ferric chloride Ferric sulfate Control

13 Average concentrations of turbidity (NTU) in control ponds and in ponds treated at 10 mg/L with ferric chloride and ferric sulfate. BeforeDays after application Treatmentapplication1714 Ferric chloride Ferric sulfate Control

14 Average concentrations of water quality variables in control ponds and in ponds treated at 10 mg/L with ferric chloride and ferric sulfate (continued). BeforeDays after application Treatmentapplication1714 Total alkalinity (mg/L) Ferric chloride Ferric sulfate Control pH Ferric chloride7.8 Ferric sulfate Control

15 Average fish survival and production in ponds treated eight times during the production period with 10 mg/L of ferric chloride and ferric sulfate. Treatments and control were replicated three times. VariableFerric chlorideFerric sulfateControl Survival (%) Channel catfish Grass carp Production (kg/ha) Channel catfish4,5724,8674,551 Grass carp


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