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Nutrient Reduction in Manure through Livestock Nutritional Management.

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Presentation on theme: "Nutrient Reduction in Manure through Livestock Nutritional Management."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nutrient Reduction in Manure through Livestock Nutritional Management

2 Balancing Animal Performance and Manure Management

3 Manure Management N and P are the two nutrients of greatest concern when dealing with manure. N and P can be managed and utilized as fertilizer for crop production.

4 Nutrient Management Nitrogen –Protein UIP DIP NPN –Amino acids Phosphorus –grains -- high –forages -- low –dicalcium phosphate

5 Ruminant Animals

6 Yearly excretion estimates of various nutrients by 1400 lb Holstein cows Fraction Total for year Milk 21750 lbs DMI 14462 lbs Raw manure (feces & urine) 47475 lbs Total N (low NRC) 223 lbs Total N (high NRC) 260 lbs P (.40% P RDM) 40 lbs P (.45% P RDM) 46 lbs P (.60% P RDM) 69 lbs K (.8% K RDM) 88 lbs K (1.2% K RDM) 146 lbs Similar trends Ca, Mg, Na, Cl UIP and DIP minimums metNRC 1989

7 Composition of Fresh Manure N: 9.4 lb actual N/ton wet manure P: 1.9 lb actual P/ton wet manure K: 3.7 lb actual K/ton wet manure Total solids 12.8% Composition will change with scraping and loading moisture content and volatilization of N

8 MWPS - 18 1,000 lb Market Animal 60 lb/day manure.34 lb/day N(154 g).11 lb/day P (50 g)

9 Nitrogen Losses 100%Nitrogen Excreted 50 to 60% Volatilization 15 to 20%Runoff, soil 20 to 30%Removed

10 Nitrogen Losses 154 g N/d x.25 = 38.5g N/hd/d removed from pens

11 Predictable Equations P and N excretions by cows vary –P or N intake Factors –P or N intake –Dry Matter Intake (DMI) –Milk yield Morse et al.

12 NRC 1996: Phosphorus Maintenance (Pm) Requirement 16 mg P/kg BW Retained (Pg) Phosphorus 3.9 g/100 g protein gain

13 NRC 1984: Phosphorus.028 (W kg ) +.039  protein gain (g/d) Maintenance Requirement Reduced 43% (1984 1996)

14 P Requirements Animal (lbs)Daily P requirement (gms) 150 7.7 30011.4 90020.9 1400 (dry)18.2 1400 (late dry)25.4 1400 (35 lbs milk)46.7 1400 (70 lbs milk)75.3 1400 (100 lbs milk)100

15 Dairy NRC recommendations.35% P RDM is enough for optimum performance Levels of.6% or higher not uncommon

16 1996 NRC Phosphorus Requirements Typical Yearling (800 lb) 0.22% of diet DM or 22.6 g/d P Intake

17 Typical Feedlot Diets.30 to.35% P on diet DM

18 Practical Considerations Corn-based diets will run.25 to.35% P The need for supplemental P is low

19 Steer Performance as Influenced by P %PP Intake,g/dADG, lb/d DMI, lb/d Feed/Gain 0.14 15.9 3.87 25.0 6.49 0.19 19.7 3.57 22.8 6.37 0.24 27.6 3.77 25.2 6.71 0.29 32.1 3.85 24.4 6.33 0.34 36.4 3.38 23.6 7.04 SE.74.20.73 Erickson et al, 1998; Nebraska

20 Phase Feeding Opportunities to lower N and P intakes during the latter stages of the finishing period. Consequently, this will lower N and P output Allows nutritionists to more effectively optimize performance w/o overfeeding.

21 Yearlings (Trial 1; Nebraska 1998) CP (%) UIP (%) P (%) CTL13.64.48.34 Fin Fin Fin 311.53.67.22

22 Performance : Yearlings Item Control Balanced SE Initial Wt.6526602.8 Final Wt.124912499.8 DMI26.225.0*.2 ADG4.064.01.06 F/G6.456.21 Erickson, et al; 1998

23 Phosphorus Balance (lbs/hd) ItemControlBalanced 135 d/period for both yearlings and calves treatments

24 Management Practices to Improve N & P Retention IMPLANTS?

25 Effect of TBA + E 2 on Nitrogen Retention of Steers TreatmentLW (lb) N Retention (g/d) Period (days) CTL TBA + E 2 CTL TBA + E 2 -1477777419.323.2 + 782183421.643.6* +2887690621.052.1** +4990297219.657.0** +70953104318.536.5* Lobley et al, 1985; Br. J. Nutr. 54:681-694.

26 Phosphorus Balance ItemCTLIMP P Intake, g/d26.1427.19 P m, g/d6.896.99 Carcass Protein Gain, g/d114207 WB Protein Gain, g/d142259 P g, g/d5.5410.10 P Excreted, g/d20.617.09 P Calculated (.68) g/d18.325.1 P Excess, g/d7.82.09

27 Swine Management

28 Nitrogen Pigs require amino acids, not protein Use synthetic amino acids

29 Protein vs Amino Acid Req

30 Synthetic Lysine Replace 100 lbs of SBM with 3 lbs synthetic lysine and 97 lbs of corn Save $3.96/ton –Corn @$1.70/bu & SBM @ $205/ton Save $1.32/pig Reduce N excretion by 22% Reduce odor from ammonia

31 Split-Sex Feeding Gilts eat less feed and put on more lean tissue Feed gilts higher AA < 80 lbs Save $1.40/pig Reduce N excretion by 5%

32 Phase Feeding By feeding more diets, you decrease the amount of time you are over-and under- feeding AA. By using 5 Grower-Finisher diets instead of 2, save $1.60/pig Decrease N excretion by 5-8%

33 Genotypical Feeding Pig will only perform to genetic capability. Increasing protein/AA levels to a genetically average pig will NOT increase muscle. Match genetics to nutrition Reduce N excretion & odor Save $$$$

34 Antibiotics Some preliminary data shows that certain antibiotics may be nitrogen sparing. Potentially less N excretion and ammonia production

35 Balance on Available Amino Acids When using something besides a corn- SBM diet Add less N to the diet Reduce N excretion and ammonia production

36 Reducing Sulfur Excretion Amino acids –methionine –cysteine Minerals –copper sulfate –ferrous sulfate

37 Dietary Modifications Reduced protein from 13 to 8% and added synthetic AA to meet requirement Replaced copper sulfate with copper oxide Replaced ferrous sulfate with ferric chloride

38 Results Reduced N in manure by 45% Reduced volatile fatty acids (VFA’s) by 61% Reduced sulfur compounds in air by 63%

39 Adding 5% Cellulose to Diet Reduced pH from 7.8 to 6.4 Reduced ammonia emissions by 68% Reduced sulfur volatile organic compounds by 12%

40 While these may not all be practical at the present, it does demonstrate that we can affect nutrient excretions by how we feed the pig.

41 Phosphorus (P) Only 30% of P in grain is available Rest is in phytate form and is unavailable

42 Add Phytases Phytases are enzymes that make phytate P more available Reduce P excretion by 30% Add less dicalcium phosphate Economic“wash” when compare to dical price Some reports of slight savings

43 Cost of P Excretion It takes 3 times more land to spread hog manure on when you base the recommendation on P instead of N Potential BIG cost in the future

44 Low Phytate Corn “Gene Jockeys” and plant breeders have developed corn varieties with very low levels of phytate P. Commercially available in a year or two

45 Distiller’s Dried Grains from SD & MN Research on DDG from SD & MN ethanol plants shows that P is 60% more available from their products Tremendous opportunity for gestating sows and finishing pigs Low in lysine

46 Balance on Available P Do when using other feedstuffs than corn and soybean meal Add less inorganic P (cheaper) Less P excretion

47 Improving Feed Efficiency Anything that improves feed efficiency will decrease feed in the dust or the amount of feed ending up in the manure, thereby reducing the nutrient load in the manure and the substrate for odor production.

48 Improving Feed Efficiency Fat additions (1% most economical) Proper feeder adjustment Pelleted diets Wet/dry feeders Growth promotants Covers on drop-spouts

49 Conclusions Environmental issues will continue to be important in the livestock industry. By utilizing certain nutrition schemes and management tools we can theoretically lower our inputs and outputs of N and P. We all need to do our job in protecting the environment.

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