Presentation on theme: "Manure 101: Nutrient Management and the Dairy Industry. Kevin Erb UW-Extension NPM Program Kevin Erb UW-Extension NPM Program University of Wisconsin -"— Presentation transcript:
Manure 101: Nutrient Management and the Dairy Industry. Kevin Erb UW-Extension NPM Program Kevin Erb UW-Extension NPM Program University of Wisconsin - Extension UW-Madison College of Agricultural & Life Sciences University of Wisconsin - Extension UW-Madison College of Agricultural & Life Sciences
Farmer View of Site-Specific Future Manure Regulations
What is Nutrient Management? Common Sense. Combine on-farm nutrient sources, with commercial fertilizer, to meet crop need. On-farm nutrient sources (manure) Commercial fertilizer Minimize nutrient losses Soil reserves
Environmental Aspects of Manure Nutrients Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium Bacteria/Pathogens BOD
Environmentalist’s view of how farmers manage manure.
Phosphorus Movement Soil attached is most common route 1 lb P = 500 lb algae One ton soil eroded = 1 ton algae in water Stop Erosion, Solve Big Part of the Problem National Buffer Initiative (USA)
Potassium Dairy Animal Health Concern Too Much in Ration: Ketosis / Milk Fever
Bacteria E. Coli Up to 6 month + viable in soil Does not survive as well on surface Enters streams when manure runs off
Antibiotics Animals DO NOT break them down. Excreted intact with the urine Low level resistance concerns
Biochemical Oxygen Demand * A measure of how much oxygen is removed from a water body by the bacteria breaking down organic materials. (BOD) Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) * Oxygen required to break down chemical compounds in water body.
Manure Basics What is Manure? Urine, feces Waste feed Parlor water Gray water (sinks, etc)
Manure Basics How Much Manure Does a cow produce in a day? A week? A Month? A Year?
The Influence Of Milk Production On Daily Manure Production
How Much Manure? Typical Dairy Cow: 148 lbs/day (18 gal) 1036 lbs/week (124 gal) 4440 lbs/month (531 gal) lbs/year (6460 gal) Does not include youngstock, other wastes
Rule of Thumb #1 One cow plus replacement plus wastewater = 10,000 gal/year
What is in manure? Nutrients Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium Micro nutrients (Sulfur, Boron, etc) Whatever the cow eats that does not become milk or meat becomes manure. If it’s in the feed, it’s in the manure.
Dairy Diet and Runoff Manure from 2 rations applied 1.28 and 0.48% P (rec is ) Runoff was 4x higher for high P diet Same lbs P applied Runoff was 10x higher when manure rates were the same. Ebeling et al, 2001
Dairy Diet Impacts Ave P in dairy ration is 0.47% Gunderson, Keuning & Erb, 2001 NRC Recommendation is % P Higher rates are due to belief that lower P reduces reproductive efficiency.
The Manure Paradox Crops use N:P:K in a 3:1:2 ratio Dairy manure is a 1:1:2 ratio (available) Meet the crop’s N need = excess P Meet the crop’s P need = buy N fert
Manure Nutrient Content - Dairy - _____________________________________ N P 2 O 5 K 2 O (surface/incorporated) ______________________ Solid (lb/ton) 3 / 438 Liquid (lb/1,000 gal) 8 / _____________________________________
Crop Nutrient Removal *recommended application rate. Note that these numbers vary by state/prov. NP 2 O 5 K 2 O lb/a/yr Corn (160 bu/a) 160* Corn silage (23 ton/a ) Soybean (40 bu/a) Alfalfa (5 ton/a) Reed canarygrass (5 ton/a)
Example of P 2 O 5 Recommendations for Corn Yield Goal Soil Test Level bu/a LowOptimumHigh Ex.High lb/acre
Corn Nutrient Need vs. Manure Nutrient Supply Following a Nitrogen Strategy lb/acre
Manure Application Rates Nitrogen Strategy Maximum rates P and K in excess of crop need Efficient with time and labor Preferred when land is limited
Corn Nutrient Need vs. Manure Nutrient Supply Following a Phosphorus Strategy lb/acre
Manure Application Rates Phosphorus Strategy Low rates Need supplemental nitrogen Increased time and labor Need adequate acreage
Manure Nitrogen Content Total vs. Available Solid Manure lb N/ton
Soil Test P Changes Slowly Soil buffering capacity The amount of fertilizer needed to change the soil test level by 1 ppm 18 lbs P 2 O 5 /acre = 1 ppm change in soil P Time is required to either lower or raise soil test levels.
Soil Test P Changes Slowly - Example - Soil test P = 75 ppm (EH) Track draw-down of P over a CCOHHH rotation.
Soil Test P Changes Slowly - Example - Soil test P = 75 ppm (EH) Track draw-down of P over a CCOHHH rotation. bu/a removes 55 lb P 2 O 5 /a/yr 100 bu/a removes 25 lb P 2 O 5 /a/yr 5 tons/a removes 65 lb P 2 O 5 /a/yr Removal of P 2 O 5 over rotation = 330 lbs P 2 O 5
Soil Test P Changes Slowly - Example - Soil test P = 75 ppm (EH) Track drawdown of P over a CCOHHH rotation. Removal of P 2 O 5 over rotation = 330 lbs P 2 O 5 Change in soil test P = 330 lb P 2 O 5 /18 = 18 ppm P
Soil Test P Changes Slowly - Example - Soil test P = 75 ppm (EH) Track drawdown of P over a CCOHHH rotation. Removal of P 2 O 5 over rotation = 330 lbs P 2 O 5 Change in soil test P = 330 lb P 2 O 5 /18 = 18 ppm P Soil test P = 57 ppm (EH) after the 6-year rotation. (75 ppm P - 18 ppm P = 57 ppm P)
Regulations 1972 Clean Water Act Point vs. Non-Point Sources Problem Not Yet Solved.
Regulatory Future Each Providence, State, County, Township may be different. Future Lower AU (animal unit) threshold for permit More phosphorus emphasis Future emphasis on bacterial / antibiotics / odor concerns Short term focus will be on P based nutrient management
Economics $0.20/lb) 100 Cow Dairy Alfalfa N =$ 1,200 ( lbs N/a) Manure N =$ 1,320 (22 3 lbs N/ton) Total On-Farm N =$ 2,520
Economics (P 2 O $0.25/lb; K 2 $0.13/lb) 100 Cow Dairy Manure P 2 O 5 =$ 1,650 (22 3 lbs P 2 O 5 /ton) Manure K 2 O =$ 2,288 (22 8 lbs K 2 O/ton) Total Manure P & K 2 O =$ 3,938
If You Are Going To Use Manure as a Fertilizer… Treat It Like A Fertilizer!
Soil Test Phosphorus Variability from a Wisconsin Dairy Farm
Public Relations Manure Handling and Application Odor control Real or perceived excessive rates Road spillage Traffic hazards & delays Spreading near water Cattle in water
Challenges of the Future: Dairy Trends. Management: More cows, fewer farms. Realization by farmers that manure management requires a cash investment. Manure’s Internet IPO: Lots of ideas now, lots of broken ideas coming in a few years. Easiest to use / most farm- profitable techniques will remain.
Opportunities of the Future: Every farm will have a nutrient management plan. Nitrogen – Phosphorus Pendulum Affiliated and independent consultants Site-specific research Between 1992 and 2001, UWGB was the lead institution for mass balance research.
Farmers are searching for answers. Manure is no longer considered the last item after everything else is done. Farmers are searching for answers. Manure is no longer considered the last item after everything else is done.