Feed Management! Ration formulation and feed delivery are key components in feed management; the end result is feeding closer to the animals requirements without aversely affecting production or animal health C. C. Stallings, 2009
Phosphorus Excretion in Lactating Dairy Cows (grams/cow/day) IntakeUrine Fecal Total.34% P 91.3 46 47.51% P 138 1.6 86 87.67% P 180 2.3 119 121 Knowlton and Herbein. 2002. Jour. Dairy Sci.
Phosphorus based nutrient management plans P must be considered in the nutrient management plans starting January 1, 2007 If fields are low in P content NMP’s can still be N based If fields above a certain threshold then P based plans are needed
Ration Costs vs Ration P Content Example Ration: Corn Silage, Haylage, Corn, Cottonseed, SBM, Brewers Grain, DiCal, Ca Carb, Vit, TM
Effect of ration P content on acres needed to dispose of manure P based nutrient management plans and 50% corn silage and 50% alfalfa.35%.40%.45%.50%.55% Ac/100 Cows107 128 149 170 191 Hanigan and Knowlton, 2006 Proc. Feed Management Cow College
Sources of Phosphorus in Rations Forages Grains Protein Supplements Byproduct Feeds Inorganic Mineral Supplements
Strategies to reduce ration phosphorus content 1. Remove inorganic/supplemental sources 2.Use forages as greater portion of ration dry matter 3.Use low P feeds
Phosphorus content of feeds National Research Council, 2001 Barley.39% DM Corn grain.30 Hominy.65 Cottonseeds, whole.60 Soybeans, whole.60 Soybean, meal.70 Brewers grains, wet.59 Distillers grains.83
P content of “high” P feeds National Research Council, 2001 Corn gluten feed 1.00% DM Wheat midds 1.02 Cottonseed meal 1.15 Wheat bran 1.18 Fish meal 3.05
P content of “low” P feeds National Research Council, 2001 Citrus pulp.12% DM Cottonseed hulls.12 Molasses, sugarcane.10 Soybean hulls.17 Sugar beet pulp.09
Herds – May 2008 187 herds and 31,271 cows Intensive Group I – 8 started Jan. ‘06 Incentive Group A – 17 started Jan. ‘06 Incentive Group B – 30 started March ‘06 Incentive Group C – 23 started May ‘06 Incentive Group D – 37 started Oct. ‘06 Incentive Group E – 40 started May ’07 Incentive Group R – 32 rolled from above
Payment There will be a two-tier compensation plan based on the 2001 NRC P requirement -less than 105% results in $12 per cow -105 to 115% results in $6 per cow -115 to 125% results in $3 per cow Greater than 125% results in no payment Maximum payment will be $4,800 for one year or $9,600 for two years if the farm qualifies for both years
Results - Year 1 (160 herds) P intake as a % of required Less than 105% - 7% of reports ($12/cow) 105 to 115% - 23% ($6/cow) 115- 125% - 24% ($3/cow) Greater than 125% - 46%
P, % DM for Years 1 and 2 57 herds completing both years Year 1Year 2
Some lessons learned Nutritionists and dairymen are not hesitant to remove inorganic sources of P from rations if P requirements are met Forages and pastures do not always have low levels of P High corn prices appear to have increased the use of high P by-product feeds in 2008 Ration modification to select low P feeds is not typically done
Impacts There have been 160 herds completing enough samplings to receive a yearly summary Over $100,000 of incentive payments has been approved and $118,719 in free forage testing to Virginia dairy farms A reduction of P fed of 2.65 lbs. per cow/year or 32.6 tons yearly was calculated for 24,522 cows in these herds
What is a comprehensive Nutrient Management Plan (CNMP)? A Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) group of conservation practices which helps make sure that both production and natural resource protection goals are achieved.
When is CNMP needed? NRCS requires a CNMP when they provide incentive payments or cost share money to implement conservation practices.
Where does Feed Management fit? Feed Management is a voluntary part of a CNMP.
What role does the nutritionist play? A certified nutritionist must write and approve the Feed Management plan.
How are nutritionists certified? A Memorandum of Understanding (MON) exists between the American Registry of Professional Animal Scientists (ARPAS) and NRCS to allow members to be Technical Service Providers (TSP’s) in Feed Management.
How are nutritionists certified? To be certified the nutritionist must have proficiency in developing animal diets for Feed Management as defined by NRCS Code 592 in conjunction with passing the Feed Management qualifying exam.
Conclusion Feed Management will continue to be an effective tool in reducing nutrient output in situations where nutrient loading of soils is a problem