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THE REACTIVE STREAM STABILIZATION (RS2) RESEARCH Knowledge by Dr. Chester Watson, Dr. David Biedenharn, & Dr. Ken Carlson. Drawings by Dave Derrick.

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Presentation on theme: "THE REACTIVE STREAM STABILIZATION (RS2) RESEARCH Knowledge by Dr. Chester Watson, Dr. David Biedenharn, & Dr. Ken Carlson. Drawings by Dave Derrick."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE REACTIVE STREAM STABILIZATION (RS2) RESEARCH Knowledge by Dr. Chester Watson, Dr. David Biedenharn, & Dr. Ken Carlson. Drawings by Dave Derrick

2 Presentation Overview 1.Environmental significance 2.Objectives of project 3.Reactive Stream Stabilization Structures - Denitrification, Phosphorus Removal - Field study description and construction 4.Preliminary lab results 5.Proposed full-size test site, Ellicott, MS

3 Eutrophication Problem: Eutrophication The Gulf of Mexico "Dead Zone", or hypoxic zone, covers 7,000 sq. miles at times during the summer Current estimates suggest that three times as much nitrogen is being carried into the Gulf today compared with levels 30 years ago Figure and information from National Center for Appropriate Technology

4 Agricultural Hydrology Erosion can destroy the riparian zone and lower the water table Compromised riparian zones result in an increase in sediment and nutrient transport stream water table stream bank

5 Nitrogen (N) For Mississippi River watershed…[1] Annual N losses in surface runoff range from kg/ha, depending largely on the amount of sediment lost Annual N losses through leaching into subsurface drains ranges from kg/ha

6 Phosphorus (P) Manure and fertilizer are applied based on crop N requirements – 2 to 3 times excess P Phosphate pollution is the major cause of algae blooms in many lake waters in the Mississippi Basin (limiting nutrient) Erosion is the major P transport mechanism – transport during surface runoff events

7 Objectives of Project Primary Objective = Minimize bank erosion Secondary Benefit = Reduce N and P loads Passive Reactive Barrier Longitudinal Peaked Stone Toe Protection (LPSTP) Field Demonstration Study: Reactive stream stabilization (RS2) structure

8 RS2 Structure

9 Anaerobic Reaction Zone Denitrification NO 3 - N 2 (g) Carbon source (sawdust) Saturated (anaerobic) Phosphorus removal Alum based water treatment residuals (WTR) Ratio of… sawdust (20 vol %) coarse sand (35%) silt sand (35%) native soil (10%) Ratio of… sawdust (19 vol %) coarse sand (33%) silt sand (33%) native soil (10%) WTR (5%)

10 Irrigation/ Fertilization A: Denitrification B: Control C: Denit./P removal CSU Lab test layout

11 Research Monitoring & Analysis Hydrolab used to measure DO, ORP, temp, conductivity, turbidity & pH Lab measurement of ortho-P, NO 3 -N, TOC, alkalinity and NH 3 -N

12 FIELD LAB EXPERIMENTS AT COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY  Four field cells (one control), 3 reactive amendments 1) Organic matter (sawdust) Denitrification Biodegradation of pesticides 2) Water treatment residual (Al) Adsorption of P 3) Zero valent iron (ZVI) Abiotic reduction of pesticides,nitrate Biodegradation of pesticides

13 Colorado State Field Lab Nitrogen Removal Results

14 Colorado State Field Lab Phosphorus Removal Results

15  Organic amendment (sawdust) to a RS2 structure significantly enhances nitrate removal relative to soil-only.  Water treatment residual (WTR) amendments significantly reduces P release to a stream.  Commonly used pesticides can be removed with zero valent iron (ZVI) as an amendment although atrazine removal appears limited abiotically.  Additional research is focusing on the role of biodegradation with mature ZVI & WTR systems Colorado State Field Lab - Conclusions

16 Sources Cited Downing, John A Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia: Land and Sea Interactions. Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST), Ames, IA. 44 p. Pionke, H.B., Gburek, W.J., Sharpley, A.N., and Zollweg, J.A Hydrologic and chemical controls on phosphorus losses from catchments. Phosphorus Loss to Water from Agriculture. C.A.B.I., Cambridge, p

17 Looking entrance conditions into project bend. PRE-PROJECT - RS2 PROJECT-LITTLE BOGUE PIX BY DAVE DERRICK FULL-SIZED TEST SITE - CONSTRUCTED NOVEMBER 19-20, 2008 LITTLE BOGUE, ELLIOTT, MS

18 Landowner is Cannon Kirk, phone Location: Exit Elliott, go east on Camp McCain Rd., after 4-6 miles turn right (east) on Hayward Rd., it is the first bend upstream of the first bridge.

19 Aerial view with approximate research project trench test location in yellow & control section (trench not dug) in pink. PRE-PROJECT - RS2 PROJECT-LITTLE BOGUE FROM RED HEN VIDEO

20 RS2 LITTLE BOGUE, ELLIOTT, MS. Dig a trench approximately 1 ft wide, 4 feet deep & 150 feet long. 1) Mark alignment of trench 2) Stage chemical and mulch along trench 3) Using backhoe with 1 ft wide bucket, dig small section of trench & backfill with a mix of 20% Aluminum Sulfate (by volume), 20% Eucalyptus mulch (carbon by volume), & the remainder native material from trench. 4) Move backhoe to next section and repeat dig/backfill procedure until half of the trench length (75 ft) has been constructed. 5) Method is the same for the next 75 ft but adventitious rooting poles will be put in the trench, then the trench will be backfilled. Vegetated test plots of Willow, Sycamore, & River Birch will each be 25 ft long. 6) Install monitoring wells up-gradient and down-gradient of trench to analyze nitrogen and phosphorous removal.

21 Trench was backfilled with materials to provide a reactive barrier to nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). Organic matter (OM) was added as a carbon (C) source which is required to sustain the microbial denitrification reaction the removes N. Alum (aluminum sulfate – Al 2 SO 4 ) was added as a precursor to the formation of aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH) 3 ), a precipitate that effectively and strongly adsorbs P from water. Organic matter in the form of eucalyptus mulch was added within a target volume fraction range of 15-20% v/v. The type and range of OM has been optimized in the lab. Alum was added to achieve a weight fraction of aluminum (Al) in the trench of % w/w. The Al weight fraction is the key design parameter for P removal and the range chosen has been studied extensively at bench and pilot scale.

22 THE PLAN Drawings by Dave Derrick

23 Existing condition of floodplain landward of existing LPSTP – flow is toward the viewer Good native vegetation on floodplain bench & bank RS2 Test Site: Little Bogue, Elliott, MSCorn field in 2007, Cotton field in 2008

24 RS2 Test Site: Little Bogue, Elliott, MS On the narrow mid-bank bench (average width ft, approx. 8 ft above the streamside floodplain bench), a trench a bucket wide (1.0 ft) was dug to a depth of 4 ft. This should intercept a large percentage of shallow groundwater.

25 RS2 Test Site: Little Bogue, Elliott, MS There is a 75 ft long control section (nothing done, no trench, just monitoring instruments), and a 150 ft long test trench section. Within the downstream 75 ft of the test trench, three 25 ft-long test plots of adventitious rooting poles of Black Willow, Sycamore, & River Birch were placed, spacing varied from 1 to 2 ft.

26 RS2 Test Site: Little Bogue, Elliott, MS For the test section shovels were used to backfill the trench with a mix of 20.2% (by volume) Aluminum Sulfate, 18.7% mulch, and the remainder native material from the trench. This also effectively planted the live poles to a depth of 4 ft.

27 RS2 Test Site: Little Bogue, Elliott, MS Monitoring instruments determine performance of the control and planted & not planted test sections. Instruments at different depths will determine if some groundwater is bypassing the test trench.

28 RS2 Test Site: Little Bogue, Elliott, MS According to the CSU laboratory tests, the Aluminum Sulfide and carbon (mulch) should greatly reduce the Nitrogen & Phosphorus load to the stream.

29 Tall bank RS2 Test Site: Little Bogue, Elliott, MS - aerial view Little Bogue Existing LPSTP Floodplain bench formed by suspended sediment from the stream that was deposited landward of the LPSTP. Active rotating crop field - Cotton or Corn

30 Steep sloped bank Small active gullies at edge of top bank were repaired during this effort RS2 Test Site: Little Bogue, Elliott, MS - aerial view Footprint of RS2 test trench-150 ft long 75 ft long control section- trench not dug Flow

31 Small active gullies at edge of top bank were repaired during this effort RS2 Test Site: Little Bogue, Elliott, MS - aerial view Within the downstream 75 ft of the test trench, three 25 ft-long test plots of adventitious rooting poles of Black Willow, Sycamore, & River Birch were placed, spacing varied from 1 to 2 ft. Flow

32 Install instrumentation to monitor long-term project performance. 200 ft RS2 Test Site: Little Bogue, Elliott, MS - aerial view

33 PRE-PROJECT PHOTOS by Dave Derrick April 2, 2008

34 Looking the project bend, Little Bogue, Elliott, MS. PRE-PROJECT - RS2 PROJECT-LITTLE BOGUE PIX BY DAVE DERRICK

35 Flow Looking the project bend, Little Bogue, Elliott, MS. Existing Longitudinal Peaked Stone Toe Protection &, floodplain bench PRE-PROJECT - RS2 PROJECT-LITTLE BOGUE PIX BY DAVE DERRICK

36 Looking entrance conditions into project bend. Note floodplain bench, & mid-bank bench where the test will occur. PRE-PROJECT - RS2 PROJECT-LITTLE BOGUE PIX BY DAVE DERRICK

37 Looking the mid-bank bench where the test trench will be conducted. Control area in pink, test trench location in yellow. PRE-PROJECT - RS2 PROJECT-LITTLE BOGUE PIX BY DAVE DERRICK

38 Looking landward from the LPSTP. Arrows show bench where 4 ft deep test trench will be dug. PRE-PROJECT - RS2 PROJECT-LITTLE BOGUE PIX BY DAVE DERRICK

39 Top bank above test trench area. Cotton field to right, pine tree buffer between stream & cotton field PRE-PROJECT - RS2 PROJECT-LITTLE BOGUE PIX BY DAVE DERRICK

40 Looking trench location on mid-bank bench. PRE-PROJECT - RS2 PROJECT-LITTLE BOGUE PIX BY DAVE DERRICK

41 PRE-PROJECT PHOTOS by Dave Derrick November 19, 2008

42 Looking pine tree buffer to left & test bench- floodplain bench area to right. Note lush growth. PRE-PROJECT - RS2 PROJECT-LITTLE BOGUE PIX BY DAVE DERRICK

43 Looking DS. Note lush growth on floodplain bench. Willow, River Birch, and Sycamore will be harvested from there. PRE-PROJECT - RS2 PROJECT-LITTLE BOGUE PIX BY DAVE DERRICK

44 Looking DS. Test trench will be on mid-bank bench. PRE-PROJECT - RS2 PROJECT-LITTLE BOGUE PIX BY DAVE DERRICK

45 Looking US. Test trench will be just US from Biedenharn PRE-PROJECT - RS2 PROJECT-LITTLE BOGUE PIX BY DAVE DERRICK

46 Harvesting cotton on top bank. PRE-PROJECT - RS2 PROJECT-LITTLE BOGUE PIX BY DAVE DERRICK

47 LET’S DO SOME RESEARCH !!

48 1ft 4ft Design concept of Reactive Stream Stabilization (RS2) on Little Bogue From Drs. Dave Biedenharn & Chester Watson

49 THE EQUIPMENT

50 The tracked mini excavator & Bobcat skid-steer with auger CONSTRUCTION-RS2 PROJECT-LITTLE BOGUE PIX BY DAVE DERRICK

51 Bobcat skid steer delivering topsoil to repair gullies on top bank. CONSTRUCTION-RS2 PROJECT-LITTLE BOGUE PIX BY DAVE DERRICK

52 RS2 LITTLE BOGUE, ELLIOTT, MS. Construction resources required: 1)Tracked mini-excavator (12” bucket) for 2 days 2)Tracked skid steer with bucket and auger 4)4 laborers for 2 days (us) 5)3-50 bag pallets of Aluminum Sulfate 6)70 bags of Eucalyptus mulch 7) Observation well equipment Additional resources needed: knowledge

53 CONSTRUCTION PHOTOS by Dave Derrick November 19-20, 2008

54 Two 50 bag pallets of Aluminum Sulfate. CONSTRUCTION-RS2 PROJECT-LITTLE BOGUE PIX BY DAVE DERRICK

55 Truckload of Eucalyptus mulch (1.5 cu. ft per bag). CONSTRUCTION-RS2 PROJECT-LITTLE BOGUE PIX BY DAVE DERRICK

56 Off loading & staging Aluminum Sulfate at test site. CONSTRUCTION-RS2 PROJECT-LITTLE BOGUE PIX BY DAVE DERRICK

57 Two bags of Aluminum Sulfate for each bag of Eucalyptus mulch CONSTRUCTION-RS2 PROJECT-LITTLE BOGUE PIX BY DAVE DERRICK

58 Looking staged test materials CONSTRUCTION-RS2 PROJECT-LITTLE BOGUE PIX BY DAVE DERRICK

59 Looking staged material on mid-bank bench. CONSTRUCTION-RS2 PROJECT-LITTLE BOGUE PIX BY DAVE DERRICK

60 Looking excavator with 2 PhD’s shovel backfilling trench CONSTRUCTION-RS2 PROJECT-LITTLE BOGUE PIX BY DAVE DERRICK

61 From cab looking US. Mixing sulfate & carbon with backfill material CONSTRUCTION-RS2 PROJECT-LITTLE BOGUE PIX BY DAVE DERRICK

62 Hand labor is used to mix Aluminum Sulfate & mulch with backfill. Next time another excavator will be used to mix and backfill, we are learning!! No plantings in this first 75 ft. of trench. CONSTRUCTION-RS2 PROJECT-LITTLE BOGUE PIX BY DAVE DERRICK

63 Looking US. Test plant Sycamore tree cuttings in trench. CONSTRUCTION-RS2 PROJECT-LITTLE BOGUE PIX BY DAVE DERRICK

64 Trench was dug to a consistent depth of 4 ft for entire length CONSTRUCTION-RS2 PROJECT-LITTLE BOGUE PIX BY DAVE DERRICK John McCullah says, “Dig a hole, plant a pole!!” We did….

65 In background 25 ft of Sycamore poles planted in trench, foreground 25 ft of River Birch poles. CONSTRUCTION-RS2 PROJECT-LITTLE BOGUE PIX BY DAVE DERRICK

66 Planting and trenching complete. Excess soil will be smoothed, seeded, & mulched. A small berm will be built streamward of the trench to slow rainfall & potentially some surface runoff will infiltrate into trench & undergo treatment. CONSTRUCTION-RS2 PROJECT-LITTLE BOGUE PIX BY DAVE DERRICK

67 Looking trench with plantings, & small berm (potato ridge levee) streamward of trench CONSTRUCTION-RS2 PROJECT-LITTLE BOGUE PIX BY DAVE DERRICK

68 Looking seeded & mulched trench, berm, & plantings. CONSTRUCTION-RS2 PROJECT-LITTLE BOGUE PIX BY DAVE DERRICK

69 Looking adventitious rooting plants in trench CONSTRUCTION-RS2 PROJECT-LITTLE BOGUE PIX BY DAVE DERRICK

70 Looking US, close-up of pole plantings in trench CONSTRUCTION-RS2 PROJECT-LITTLE BOGUE PIX BY DAVE DERRICK

71 From top bank, looking completed test trench CONSTRUCTION-RS2 PROJECT-LITTLE BOGUE PIX BY DAVE DERRICK

72 Looking completed seeded & mulched test area. CONSTRUCTION-RS2 PROJECT-LITTLE BOGUE PIX BY DAVE DERRICK

73 Looking control test area (undisturbed except for installation of monitoring instruments). CONSTRUCTION-RS2 PROJECT-LITTLE BOGUE PIX BY DAVE DERRICK

74 GULLY REPAIR ON TOP BANK

75 Landowner’s pine trees were all flagged so as to not be damaged during gully repair activities CONSTRUCTION-RS2 PROJECT-LITTLE BOGUE PIX BY DAVE DERRICK

76 One of several gullies on top bank that were repaired concurrently with construction of the test trench. PRE-PROJECT - RS2 PROJECT-LITTLE BOGUE PIX BY DAVE DERRICK

77 Repaired gully with small ring levee (potato ridge ring levee). Seeded with winter rye grass & mulched with hay CONSTRUCTION-RS2 PROJECT-LITTLE BOGUE PIX BY DAVE DERRICK

78 Dave & Chester mulching top bank gully repair areas. CONSTRUCTION-RS2 PROJECT-LITTLE BOGUE PIX BY DAVE DERRICK

79 Looking US. Project complete, backing equipment out. CONSTRUCTION-RS2 PROJECT-LITTLE BOGUE PIX BY DAVE DERRICK

80 MONITORING INSTRUMENT INSTALLATION PHOTOS BY CHESTER WATSON JANUARY 12, 2009

81 Dr. Biedenharn with some of the monitoring instruments. MONITORING INSTRUMENT INSTALL-LITTLE BOGUE PIX BY WATSON

82 Looking test site. Excellent planted grass coverage. MONITORING INSTRUMENT INSTALL-LITTLE BOGUE PIX BY WATSON

83 Looking the test area. Great rye grass growth on all disturbed areas. MONITORING INSTRUMENT INSTALL-LITTLE BOGUE PIX BY WATSON

84 Water & soil samples taken in May and July Monitoring wells installed January From Drs. Dave Biedenharn & Chester Watson

85 7 MONTHS AFTER PROJECT COMPLETION Photos by Derrick JULY 3, 2009 TAKING SOIL SAMPLES

86 Looking test site. Excellent planted grass coverage. 7 MONTHS AFTER TRENCHING-LITTLE BOGUE PIX DERRICK

87 Looking the test site. All planted poles died except for one willow!!! 7 MONTHS AFTER TRENCHING-LITTLE BOGUE PIX DERRICK

88 Close-up of the one willow that lived. 7 MONTHS AFTER TRENCHING-LITTLE BOGUE PIX DERRICK

89 Looking downhill at one of the monitoring wells. 7 MONTHS AFTER TRENCHING-LITTLE BOGUE PIX DERRICK

90 Ground water & soil sampling protocol from Dr. Ken Carlson, Colorado State University.

91 Tools used to take a soil sample 16 inches below the surface. 7 MONTHS AFTER TRENCHING-LITTLE BOGUE PIX DERRICK

92 Very dry for the top 7 inches or so in each of the 15 soil sample holes 7 MONTHS AFTER TRENCHING-LITTLE BOGUE PIX DERRICK

93 Soil Sample Results Total phosphorus reduced by about 44% through RS2. Increased by Total phosphorus reduced by about 44% through RS2. Increased by about 58% through control section. The bio-available phosphorus was decreased by about 55% through RS2, and by about 20% through control section From Drs. Dave Biedenharn & Chester Watson

94 Well Sample Results Total nitrogen (TN) reduced by 40% Nitrate (NO3 - ) reduced by 51% Aqueous phase Total Phosphorus (TP) reduced by 31% Aqueous phase Dissolved Reactive Phosphorus (DRP) reduced by 14% Total Organic Carbon increased by 590% (most likely due to mulch amendment to barrier) From Drs. Dave Biedenharn & Chester Watson

95 17 MONTHS AFTER PROJECT COMPLETION Photos by Derrick April 5, 2010

96 Looking US. Nature has taken over the test site 17 MONTHS AFTER TRENCHING-LITTLE BOGUE PIX DERRICK

97 Several planted willows were growing & thriving. Most of the other plants probably died due to the poisonous to plants natural chemical found in the eucalyptus bark mulch that was used. 17 MONTHS AFTER TRENCHING-LITTLE BOGUE PIX DERRICK

98 Summary The initial results from the Little Bogue Reactive Stream Stabilization project are very encouraging. The design objectives of installing a reactive barrier with significantly elevated concentrations of aluminum for P adsorption and bio-available organic matter for enhanced nitrogen removal appear to have been achieved. Based on sampling data from 5 and 7 months after construction, the RS2 structure appears to be removing significant amounts of N and P from agricultural runoff that would normally enter the creek. From Drs. Dave Biedenharn & Chester Watson

99 Questions? Cleophus Speed Elvis Derrick at rest

100 Assuming the trench is 150x4x1 (Dave's PPT), the volume % of alum added was 20.2 and the organic matter was 18.7% vol/vol (75 bags of mulch, 1.5 cu ft/ bag). Since all of our pilot and demonstration data was based on WTR, we should probably report the weight fraction of aluminum added rather than a volume fraction of alum. In this case, alum has an Al weight fraction of 8.6% leading to an in-trench aluminum fraction of 1.7% by weight. This equates to a WTR v/v fraction of 18%, reasonable since we were initially aiming at WTR fraction of 10-20%. CONSTRUCTION-RS2 PROJECT-LITTLE BOGUE PIX BY DAVE DERRICK


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