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PHOSPHORUS CYCLE MICROBIAL SINK Mineralization Immobilization Weathering Eutrophication WATERBODIES and SEDIMENTS Land Application Aided by Mycorrhiza.

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Presentation on theme: "PHOSPHORUS CYCLE MICROBIAL SINK Mineralization Immobilization Weathering Eutrophication WATERBODIES and SEDIMENTS Land Application Aided by Mycorrhiza."— Presentation transcript:

1 PHOSPHORUS CYCLE MICROBIAL SINK Mineralization Immobilization Weathering Eutrophication WATERBODIES and SEDIMENTS Land Application Aided by Mycorrhiza Microbial Decomposition MINERAL FERTILIZER HUMAN and ANIMAL EXCREMENT (~50% of P in phytic acid form) ROCKBOUND Apatite Fluorapatite Chlorapatite Hydroxlapatite PLANT UPTAKE as H 2 PO 4 - or HPO 4 2- SOIL INORGANIC PORGANIC P Humic acid Inositol phosphates Phospholipids Phosphate sugars Nucleic acids Non-LabileLabileSoil Solution Specific adsorption to Fe, Al,+ Mn oxides and broken clay edgesSpecific adsorption to Fe, Al,+ Mn oxides and broken clay edges Precipitation of Ca or Mg-P at pH>7 Precipitation of Ca or Mg-P at pH>7 Precipitation of Fe, Al, or Mn-P at pH<5Precipitation of Fe, Al, or Mn-P at pH<5 Weakly sorbed phosphatesWeakly sorbed phosphates Newly-precipitated Fe, Al, or Mn-P in acid soilsNewly-precipitated Fe, Al, or Mn-P in acid soils Newly precipitated Ca or Mg-P in alkaline soilsNewly precipitated Ca or Mg-P in alkaline soils Phosphate released from labile pool or added via fertilizerPhosphate released from labile pool or added via fertilizer LEACHING SURFACE RUNOFF WIND EROSION PLANT and ANIMAL RESIDUES Eutrophication HUMAN and ANIMAL CONSUMPTION MAIN CYCLEMORE INFO By: Damon Wright, 2000; Clyde Alsup and Michelle Armstrong, 1998; Asrat Shaiferaw, 1994; and Jerry Speir, 1996  Click a Pool to Begin Tour

2 PHOSPHORUS CYCLE MICROBIAL SINK Mineralization Immobilization Weathering Land Application Aided by Mycorrhiza Microbial Decomposition MINERAL FERTILIZER HUMAN and ANIMAL EXCREMENT (~50% of P in phytic acid form) ROCKBOUND Apatite Fluorapatite Chlorapatite Hydroxlapatite SOIL INORGANIC PORGANIC P Humic acid Inositol phosphates Phospholipids Phosphate sugars Nucleic acids Non-LabileLabileSoil Solution Specific adsorption to Fe, Al,+ Mn oxides and broken clay edges Precipitation of Ca or Mg-P at pH>7 Precipitation of Fe, Al, or Mn-P at pH<5 Weakly sorbed phosphates Newly-precipitated Fe, Al, or Mn-P in acid soils Newly precipitated Ca or Mg-P in alkaline soils Phosphate released from labile pool or added via fertilizer LEACHING SURFACE RUNOFF WIND EROSION PLANT and ANIMAL RESIDUES PLANT UPTAKE as H 2 PO 4 - or HPO 4 2- MAIN CYCLEMORE INFO

3 PHOSPHORUS CYCLE Weathering MINERAL FERTILIZER ROCKBOUND Apatite Fluorapatite Chlorapatite Hydroxlapatite SOIL INORGANIC PORGANIC P Humic acid Inositol phosphates Phospholipids Phosphate sugars Nucleic acids Non-LabileLabileSoil Solution Specific adsorption to Fe, Al,+ Mn oxides and broken clay edgesSpecific adsorption to Fe, Al,+ Mn oxides and broken clay edges Precipitation of Ca or Mg-P at pH>7 Precipitation of Ca or Mg-P at pH>7 Precipitation of Fe, Al, or Mn-P at pH<5Precipitation of Fe, Al, or Mn-P at pH<5 Weakly sorbed phosphatesWeakly sorbed phosphates Newly-precipitated Fe, Al, or Mn-P in acid soilsNewly-precipitated Fe, Al, or Mn-P in acid soils Newly precipitated Ca or Mg-P in alkaline soilsNewly precipitated Ca or Mg-P in alkaline soils Phosphate released from labile pool or added via fertilizerPhosphate released from labile pool or added via fertilizer MAIN CYCLEMORE INFO

4 PHOSPHORUS CYCLE MINERAL FERTILIZER ROCKBOUND Apatite Fluorapatite Chlorapatite Hydroxlapatite MAIN CYCLEMORE INFO SOIL INORGANIC PORGANIC P Humic acid Inositol phosphates Phospholipids Phosphate sugars Nucleic acids Non-LabileLabileSoil Solution Specific adsorption to Fe, Al,+ Mn oxides and broken clay edgesSpecific adsorption to Fe, Al,+ Mn oxides and broken clay edges Precipitation of Ca or Mg-P at pH>7 Precipitation of Ca or Mg-P at pH>7 Precipitation of Fe, Al, or Mn-P at pH<5Precipitation of Fe, Al, or Mn-P at pH<5 Weakly sorbed phosphatesWeakly sorbed phosphates Newly-precipitated Fe, Al, or Mn-P in acid soilsNewly-precipitated Fe, Al, or Mn-P in acid soils Newly precipitated Ca or Mg-P in alkaline soilsNewly precipitated Ca or Mg-P in alkaline soils Phosphate released from labile pool or added via fertilizerPhosphate released from labile pool or added via fertilizer

5 PHOSPHORUS CYCLE Land Application HUMAN and ANIMAL EXCREMENT (~50% of P in phytic acid form) HUMAN and ANIMAL CONSUMPTION MAIN CYCLEMORE INFO SOIL INORGANIC PORGANIC P Humic acid Inositol phosphates Phospholipids Phosphate sugars Nucleic acids Non-LabileLabileSoil Solution Specific adsorption to Fe, Al,+ Mn oxides and broken clay edgesSpecific adsorption to Fe, Al,+ Mn oxides and broken clay edges Precipitation of Ca or Mg-P at pH>7 Precipitation of Ca or Mg-P at pH>7 Precipitation of Fe, Al, or Mn-P at pH<5Precipitation of Fe, Al, or Mn-P at pH<5 Weakly sorbed phosphatesWeakly sorbed phosphates Newly-precipitated Fe, Al, or Mn-P in acid soilsNewly-precipitated Fe, Al, or Mn-P in acid soils Newly precipitated Ca or Mg-P in alkaline soilsNewly precipitated Ca or Mg-P in alkaline soils Phosphate released from labile pool or added via fertilizerPhosphate released from labile pool or added via fertilizer

6 PHOSPHORUS CYCLE HUMAN and ANIMAL EXCREMENT (~50% of P in phytic acid form) PLANT UPTAKE as H 2 PO 4 - or HPO 4 2- HUMAN and ANIMAL CONSUMPTION PLANT and ANIMAL RESIDUES MAIN CYCLEMORE INFO

7 PHOSPHORUS CYCLE Aided by Mycorrhiza PLANT UPTAKE as H 2 PO 4 - or HPO 4 2- PLANT and ANIMAL RESIDUES HUMAN and ANIMAL CONSUMPTION MAIN CYCLEMORE INFO SOIL INORGANIC PORGANIC P Humic acid Inositol phosphates Phospholipids Phosphate sugars Nucleic acids Non-LabileLabileSoil Solution Specific adsorption to Fe, Al,+ Mn oxides and broken clay edgesSpecific adsorption to Fe, Al,+ Mn oxides and broken clay edges Precipitation of Ca or Mg-P at pH>7 Precipitation of Ca or Mg-P at pH>7 Precipitation of Fe, Al, or Mn-P at pH<5Precipitation of Fe, Al, or Mn-P at pH<5 Weakly sorbed phosphatesWeakly sorbed phosphates Newly-precipitated Fe, Al, or Mn-P in acid soilsNewly-precipitated Fe, Al, or Mn-P in acid soils Newly precipitated Ca or Mg-P in alkaline soilsNewly precipitated Ca or Mg-P in alkaline soils Phosphate released from labile pool or added via fertilizerPhosphate released from labile pool or added via fertilizer

8 PHOSPHORUS CYCLE Microbial Decomposition PLANT UPTAKE as H 2 PO 4 - or HPO 4 2- PLANT and ANIMAL RESIDUES HUMAN and ANIMAL CONSUMPTION MAIN CYCLEMORE INFO SOIL INORGANIC PORGANIC P Humic acid Inositol phosphates Phospholipids Phosphate sugars Nucleic acids Non-LabileLabileSoil Solution Specific adsorption to Fe, Al,+ Mn oxides and broken clay edgesSpecific adsorption to Fe, Al,+ Mn oxides and broken clay edges Precipitation of Ca or Mg-P at pH>7 Precipitation of Ca or Mg-P at pH>7 Precipitation of Fe, Al, or Mn-P at pH<5Precipitation of Fe, Al, or Mn-P at pH<5 Weakly sorbed phosphatesWeakly sorbed phosphates Newly-precipitated Fe, Al, or Mn-P in acid soilsNewly-precipitated Fe, Al, or Mn-P in acid soils Newly precipitated Ca or Mg-P in alkaline soilsNewly precipitated Ca or Mg-P in alkaline soils Phosphate released from labile pool or added via fertilizerPhosphate released from labile pool or added via fertilizer

9 PHOSPHORUS CYCLE MICROBIAL SINK Mineralization Immobilization MAIN CYCLEMORE INFO SOIL INORGANIC PORGANIC P Humic acid Inositol phosphates Phospholipids Phosphate sugars Nucleic acids Non-LabileLabileSoil Solution Specific adsorption to Fe, Al,+ Mn oxides and broken clay edgesSpecific adsorption to Fe, Al,+ Mn oxides and broken clay edges Precipitation of Ca or Mg-P at pH>7 Precipitation of Ca or Mg-P at pH>7 Precipitation of Fe, Al, or Mn-P at pH<5Precipitation of Fe, Al, or Mn-P at pH<5 Weakly sorbed phosphatesWeakly sorbed phosphates Newly-precipitated Fe, Al, or Mn-P in acid soilsNewly-precipitated Fe, Al, or Mn-P in acid soils Newly precipitated Ca or Mg-P in alkaline soilsNewly precipitated Ca or Mg-P in alkaline soils Phosphate released from labile pool or added via fertilizerPhosphate released from labile pool or added via fertilizer

10 PHOSPHORUS CYCLE WATERBODIES and SEDIMENTS WIND EROSION MAIN CYCLEMORE INFO SOIL INORGANIC PORGANIC P Humic acid Inositol phosphates Phospholipids Phosphate sugars Nucleic acids Non-LabileLabileSoil Solution Specific adsorption to Fe, Al,+ Mn oxides and broken clay edgesSpecific adsorption to Fe, Al,+ Mn oxides and broken clay edges Precipitation of Ca or Mg-P at pH>7 Precipitation of Ca or Mg-P at pH>7 Precipitation of Fe, Al, or Mn-P at pH<5Precipitation of Fe, Al, or Mn-P at pH<5 Weakly sorbed phosphatesWeakly sorbed phosphates Newly-precipitated Fe, Al, or Mn-P in acid soilsNewly-precipitated Fe, Al, or Mn-P in acid soils Newly precipitated Ca or Mg-P in alkaline soilsNewly precipitated Ca or Mg-P in alkaline soils Phosphate released from labile pool or added via fertilizerPhosphate released from labile pool or added via fertilizer

11 PHOSPHORUS CYCLE SURFACE RUNOFF Eutrophication MAIN CYCLEMORE INFO SOIL INORGANIC PORGANIC P Humic acid Inositol phosphates Phospholipids Phosphate sugars Nucleic acids Non-LabileLabileSoil Solution Specific adsorption to Fe, Al,+ Mn oxides and broken clay edgesSpecific adsorption to Fe, Al,+ Mn oxides and broken clay edges Precipitation of Ca or Mg-P at pH>7 Precipitation of Ca or Mg-P at pH>7 Precipitation of Fe, Al, or Mn-P at pH<5Precipitation of Fe, Al, or Mn-P at pH<5 Weakly sorbed phosphatesWeakly sorbed phosphates Newly-precipitated Fe, Al, or Mn-P in acid soilsNewly-precipitated Fe, Al, or Mn-P in acid soils Newly precipitated Ca or Mg-P in alkaline soilsNewly precipitated Ca or Mg-P in alkaline soils Phosphate released from labile pool or added via fertilizerPhosphate released from labile pool or added via fertilizer WATERBODIES and SEDIMENTS

12 PHOSPHORUS CYCLE Eutrophication WATERBODIES and SEDIMENTS LEACHING SURFACE RUNOFF WIND EROSION Eutrophication MAIN CYCLEMORE INFO

13 PHOSPHORUS CYCLE Eutrophication WATERBODIES and SEDIMENTS LEACHING MAIN CYCLEMORE INFO SOIL INORGANIC PORGANIC P Humic acid Inositol phosphates Phospholipids Phosphate sugars Nucleic acids Non-LabileLabileSoil Solution Specific adsorption to Fe, Al,+ Mn oxides and broken clay edgesSpecific adsorption to Fe, Al,+ Mn oxides and broken clay edges Precipitation of Ca or Mg-P at pH>7 Precipitation of Ca or Mg-P at pH>7 Precipitation of Fe, Al, or Mn-P at pH<5Precipitation of Fe, Al, or Mn-P at pH<5 Weakly sorbed phosphatesWeakly sorbed phosphates Newly-precipitated Fe, Al, or Mn-P in acid soilsNewly-precipitated Fe, Al, or Mn-P in acid soils Newly precipitated Ca or Mg-P in alkaline soilsNewly precipitated Ca or Mg-P in alkaline soils Phosphate released from labile pool or added via fertilizerPhosphate released from labile pool or added via fertilizer

14 PHOSPHORUS CYCLE MICROBIAL SINK Mineralization Immobilization Weathering Eutrophication WATERBODIES and SEDIMENTS Aided by Mycorrhiza Microbial Decomposition MINERAL FERTILIZER HUMAN and ANIMAL EXCREMENT (~50% of P in phytic acid form) ROCKBOUND Apatite Fluorapatite Chlorapatite Hydroxlapatite PLANT UPTAKE as H 2 PO 4 - or HPO 4 2- SOIL INORGANIC PORGANIC P Humic acid Inositol phosphates Phospholipids Phosphate sugars Nucleic acids Non-LabileLabileSoil Solution Specific adsorption to Fe, Al,+ Mn oxides and broken clay edges Precipitation of Ca or Mg-P at pH>7 Precipitation of Fe, Al, or Mn-P at pH<5 Weakly sorbed phosphates Newly-precipitated Fe, Al, or Mn-P in acid soils Newly precipitated Ca or Mg-P in alkaline soils Phosphate released from labile pool or added via fertilizer LEACHING SURFACE RUNOFF WIND EROSION PLANT and ANIMAL RESIDUES By: Damon Wright, 2000; Clyde Alsup and Michelle Armstrong, 1998; Asrat Shaiferaw, 1994; and Jerry Speir, 1996 Eutrophication HUMAN and ANIMAL CONSUMPTION Land Application START AGAIN  Click a Pool to Search Web Links MORE INFO

15 Additional Information on Phosphorus Form taken up by plant: H 2 PO 4 -, HPO 4 = Mobility in soil: None; roots must come in direct contact with orthophosphate P Mobility in plant: Yes Deficiency symptoms: Lower leaves with purple leaf margins Deficiency pH range: 7.0 Toxicity symptoms: None Toxicity pH range: Non toxic (optimum availability pH ) Role in plant growth:Important component of phospholipids and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) Role in microbial growth:Accumulation and release of energy during cellular metabolism Concentration in plants:1,000 – 5,000 ppm (0.1 –0.5%) Effect of pH on availability:H 2 PO 4 - at pH < 7.2 HPO 4 = at pH > 7.2 Interactions with other P x N, P x Zn at high pH, in anion nutrients: exchange P displaces S, K by mass action displaces Al inducing P deficiency (pH<6.0) MORE INFO BACK TO MAIN CYCLE

16 P fertilizer sources:Rock phosphate, phosphoric acid, Ca orthophosphates, ammoniumphosphates, ammonium poly-phosphates, nitric phosphates, K phosphates, microbial fertilizers (phosphobacterins) increase P uptake Additional categories: Mineralization/C:P ratio of 300: net immobilization of inorganic P P fixation:Formation of insoluble Ca, Al, and Fe phosphates Al(OH) 3 + H 2 PO 4 -  Al(OH) 2 HPO 4 (Soluble) (Insoluble) Organic P sources:Inositol phosphate (Esters of orthophosphoric acid), phospholipids, nucleic acids, phosphate sugars Inorganic P sources:Apatite and Ca phosphate (unweathered soils) and Fe and Al sinks from P fixation (weathered soils) Waste:Poultry litter (3.0 to 5.0%), steel slag (3.5%), electric coal ash (<1.0%) Additional Information on Phosphorus (Cont.) MORE INFO BACK TO MAIN CYCLE

17 Total P levels in soil:50 – 1500 mg/kg Solution concentration range:< 0.01 to 1.0 ppm Applied fertilizer:< 30% recovered in plants, more P must be added than removed by crops References: Alexander, M., Introduction to Soil Microbiology. 2 nd Edition. John Wiley and Sons, NY. Brady, N.C., The Nature and Properties of Soils. 10 th Edition. Macmillan Publishing Co., NY. Brigham Young University The Phosphorus Cycle. Harrison, A.F., Soil Organic Phosphorus. A Review of World Literature. C.A.B. p.39. Pierre, W.H., The Phosphorus Cycle and Soil Fertility. J. Amer. Soc. of Agron., 40: Pierzynski, G.M., Sims, J.T., and Vance, G.F., Soil and Environmental Quality. Lewis Publishers, FL. Stewart, J.W.B., and Sharpley, A.N., Controls on Dynamics of Soil and Fertilizer Phosphorus and Sulfur in Soil Fertility and Organic Matter as Critical Components of Production Systems, SSSA Spec. Pub. No.19, Tiessen, H., Phosphorus in the Global Environment – Transfers, Cycles and Management. John Wiley and Sons, NY. Tisdale, S.L., Nelson, W.L., Beaton, J.D. and Havlin, J.L., Soil Fertility and Fertilizers. Macmillan Publishing Co., NY. Additional Information on Phosphorus (Cont.) BACK TO MAIN CYCLE


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